✎✎✎ Ethiopian People Research Paper
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Tesfaye Shiferaw Sida PhD public defence
The people of Ethiopia accept their religion into their everyday life. Somehow or someway whatever it is that they do is based on their religion. Christianity is the dominant religion in Ethiopia and it has been told that, that came about in during the fourth century. The Orthodox Church connects with ancient Judaism in many ways for instance fasting, food restrictions, slaughtering animals, circumcision, and the layout of churches. Islam is also a very strong religion in parts of Ethiopia Childs. Many of these however have now departed to live in Israel, having been airlifted out of the country with Operation Solomon and Operation Moses in the latter part of the 20th century africaguide. Food is another part of Ethiopia culture that is very important.
I believe that again this all ties into religion. Food that is mostly known in this culture is fish, chicken, beef, vegetables, and beans. There is also what they call staple grain which is known as Teff. Ethiopians use lots of spices because they usually like their foods very hot. The last course of a meal is often kitfo, freshly ground raw beef. Ethiopians brew a barley beer called tella and a honey wine called ej. Small fried cookies known as dabo kolo are a favorite snack africaguide.
It has been said that Ethiopians love to celebrate and have a good time. Ethiopians are known for celebrating all holidays and special days such as birthdays. They also have simple family days, which I think is just they may just set specials days to do certain things. Some families set days where they have movies days, and I think that something like their simple family days. There are special marked holidays such as those that are important to African culture. Some of these festivals are Meskal and Timkat.
Meskal is a two day festival that is held at the end of the month of September celebrating the finding of the True Cross. Timkat is held twelve days after Christmas according to the Julian calendar. There is singing and dancing and it just a time for the people of Ethiopia to come together to have a good time and to celebrate what they believe in. Art is also known to be very vital to the Ethiopian culture. In Ethiopia art can be found just about everywhere because it means so much to the people. The almond-shaped eyes are a particularly appealing characteristic. Church painting in Ethiopia serves a very real purpose, with all the biblical and more localized religious stories being portrayed clearly and simply to inform uneducated people of their traditions and their heritage.
Historical context —Ethiopia is a widely diverse country with over 80 unique rich ethnic, cultural, custom and linguistic groups. This cultural heritage shaped some of the Ethiopian dance motives. References to other artworks — similar dances can be found in Western Africa, where indigenous dances are performed with head with sort of tie on it and arms, especially in the tribe of Conakry, Guinea. The dance, as well the music and singing are serving as symbolical messages and influences on the Ethiopian society. Interpretation ethics — while enjoying the Eskesta dance accompanied by the music one can truly start travelling back in the time. These music and dances are dating years back in the African history — so unique and undiscovered from us, the Europeans.
In this context, one can think of the religious variety implemented in the dances and music in Ethiopia as a whole — Orthodox Christian and Muslim motives playing the role of shaping the culture and traditions of this nation. The dance itself is very interesting to be observed — dancing in the beautiful Ethiopian nature, within the herds of animals making Eskesta an very expressive type of dance. Namely this cultural confusion serves as the one that hinders us exploring the dance fully.
Ethiopian dance is not something we, the Europeans can understand. Behind the apparent body shaking there are situated deeply cultural and hereditary connotations. Source: ThinkAboutIt. Spread the love. Adding, the book attempts to show how difficult it was for Hadiya to give up nomadic pastoralist life:. This type of lamentation largely matched that performed for people. In view of the mass death of the cattle, the expression of grief had to be generalised. Cuts and mutilations which the mourners inflicted on their bodies, particularly their ears, lost their individual meaning in this situation. For example, the reaction of Eree Kafichcho, a Sooro-Hadiyya, was vividly depicted. In full regalia signifying him as a war hero and killer of human enemies and dangerous animals, he rode around the country expressing his pain over the lost of cattle with the following song of lament:.
My cattle [I laro], why have you gone from me? Earth, I have never ploughed you or done you any harm. My cattle have soaked you with their urine and given you their dung for fertility. You are witness that I have never dealt unjustly! My cattle have passed away. Occasionally suicide was even committed by persons who were too desperate about the loss of their beloved cattle and others are said to have died because of grief.
This allegedly happened with a Shaashoogo man Jare, whose son Guute thereafter nearly went mad. This is just one example of events in which our ancestors faced existential threat and showed resilience and ability to adapt and learn. This generation has not faced existential threat — it will be ridiculous to imply that. On the other hand, it seems that the survival of their culture and heritage language is at stake and the example shows that we have what it takes to overcome thes new challenges. Various linguistics literature I checked confirm that minority language would decay and die if the natives do not recognize the danger and consciously make preservation and revival efforts.
Language death is rarely a sudden event, but a slow process of each generation learning less and less of the language, until its use is relegated to the domain of traditional use, such as in poetry and song. Typically the transmission of the language from adults to children becomes more and more restricted, to the final setting that adults speaking the language will raise children who never acquire fluency. This process of change has been described by Appel in two categories, though they are not mutually exclusive.
Often speakers replace elements of their own language with something from the language they are shifting toward. Also, if their heritage language has an element that the new language does not, speakers may drop it. Not there yet, but… — Hadiyyisa has not currently reached this point in every way. However, there are alarming signs of the elements mentioned. Yes, Hadiyyisa speakers are making their language similar to Amharic — e. Yes, Hadiyyisa speakers are replacing elements of their own language with that of Amharic — e. Yes, The transmission of Hadiyyisa from adult to children have weakened — e.
Even the children and adults whose mother tongue was Hadiyyisa have diminished desire to use the language. I am not puritan at all, but I see the need for us all to start taking notes and commit to changing our habits, myself included. Its power in economic and social spheres is firmly established. It is also designated language of federal government business and language of communications among people of Ethiopia.
Pragmatism dictates this and we should be OK with the strategic choice. The first is the increasing migration of Hadiya youth to urban centers in search of opportunities where they have less need to use Hadiyyisa and more need to learn proper Amharic or English, e. Second manifestation is the growing use of Internet and social media by young people of Hadiya ethnic group. It appears that the youth is convinced that Internet communication cannot be done in Hadiyyisa. Part of that promise can be fulfilled if more and more people use Hadiyyisa in their online and other electronic communications such as email. We should hold on to the promise by changing our habits in our electronic communications when appropriate and possible. In the past many felt ashamed of being ethnic Hadiya and made an effort to learn Amharic in an attempt to blend in to avoid stigma.
Nowadays although for the most part shame is not a strong force, young people still feel the need to blend in to a more powerful country-wide current that is Amharic for it encompasses the pop culture, economic and social opportunities, et cetera. Also, the powerful trend that the legacy Amharic dominance started in the past is difficult to perceive and reverse without a new appreciation of the problem. Urbanization and globalization I expect these to grow are relatively new forces at play that can only be countered through admitting that there is a problem. Then we have to fortify our language and culture against extinction through the determined efforts that include development of Hadiyyisa in speech, scholarship, arts, music, media, literature, et cetera.
Programs must be launched at the zonal, regional, and federal government since language community alone may lack expertise and resources levels to combat the trend. Higher education institutions at every level must lead in research and methods of development Hadiyyisa and other endangered and weakening languages. We need to find intellectuals that prioritize and focus their work on the issue of disappearing languages, cultures, and the diversity of the country. Those with Southern background are especially well positioned to tackle the problem with which they may have first-hand experience.
There are examples of success stories of language reclamation, revitalization, even revival of dead languages i. Hebrew through speech community initiatives, some of which are listed here. We do not want to earn criticism from future generations by doing nothing today. Some thoughts below point out some specific suggestions to strengthen Hadiyyisa, but the ideas should apply to all endangered and weakening language communities. There are communities within Ethiopia that I think are doing a better job in revitalising their heritage language. For example, while it is still work in progress, I think Afan Oromo language has made better progress relative to other historically marginalised and low-resourced languages in Ethiopia. One can see fairly strong presence of Afan Oromo contents written, audio, video , language education tools, public and private broadcast media, et cetera.
I think other communities can learn much from the one in Oromia on how to redevelop their own heritage language. To start with the easiest to implement commit to use of Hadiyyisa in all intra-ethnic communications friends, family, et cetera , no matter how awkward we feel at first. We will get better with time. We can develop unwavering community self-esteem, since according to language experts; it is a key to language preservation.
As I stated before, these comments are directed at community overall. I am sure there are tireless Hadiya individuals and institutions that are involved now and in the past in preserving and teaching Hadiya culture and history although it seems that they are very hard to find online — indication that there are no strong institutions. My thanks to the ones that are out there working hard on this issue, but we should also admit that more must be done. In many ways, Hadiya people are fiercely proud of their identity like any other , but perhaps due to the luck of deep awareness of their own culture and history, they tend to not be assertive and positive about living and preserving their cultural and historical assets, including their language.
How much of the Hadiya culture and history does the community itself know? This question can be directed towards young and old, but especially the young educated people. That power and position at various levels of Woshaabichoo is given by the people and power can be taken away by the same. Democracy is in fact indigenous to Hadiya. Being born to a dignitary family does not guarantee inheritance of power and office since Hadiya culture is deeply suspicious of dynastic power. Clan hierarchy and monarchic organization of society that have worked for other ethnic groups never appealed to Hadiya people due to their distinct value system.
This system is one that Hadiya used since ancient times and it has proven resilient through the hardest periods in Hadiya history. Although it has been weakened at present, this self-governance has proven to be better to this day at resolving some difficult conflicts between people of society better than formal legal system of the country. History example one — Did you know that the assimilation and subjugation of Hadiya of ancient times into Ethiopia of today was a result of many wars between Hadiya and Abyssinian Empire? A note about past injustices based on ethnic identities in Ethiopia — No one should use history to develop grudge, settle scores, and create any ill will towards anyone for things that happened generations ago.
To the extent that bad things have happened in the past in Ethiopia, there is no single ethnic group e. And to the extent that benefits and privileges have accrued to any ethnic group e. It has always been the elite groups within them who traded in the name of Amhara, separating brotherly peoples of the Horn of Africa with ancient linkages. We share much in common with the vast majority of Amhara people including being oppressed by these elites, although arguably to different degrees.
Also, no one should feel offended when historically marginalized people try learn their true past. In fact teaching truly what happened to current and future generations and discussing them are the only ways to move forward as one people. We can take a lesson from the US school systems. Our country fails miserably in this regard. Hiding our bad history has been tried before, but as we have already seen, it cannot be hidden forever. It is well established that in the past the elites of certain community have vanquishing the populations of other communities in the country and ethnic based suppressions have been exercised until recently. We should educate ourselves comprehensively both about the victors and the subjugated — the many times the subjugated resisted, the rebellions they initiated, the heroic deeds of those leaders.
They too are part of Ethiopian history landscape; they add a nuanced perspective to the prevailing narrative. We should start viewing ethnic groups in Ethiopia as siblings in a family metaphor who each have their own unique individuality. It is undeniable fact that most siblings have lost or not been able to develop these unique attributes — their languages and cultures due to our history of ethnic based suppression mentioned above. There is no reason why a strong family unity and well-developed and strong individual sibling identities cannot co-exist. It is doubtful that there are genuinely strong ethnic identities to begin with.
National unity is not at all undermined by ethnic identities being too strong. Those that divide the country have mostly other motives such as corruption, economic exploitation, and power politics; but may use ethnic vehicles to achieve their goals. If you hail from a sibling ethnicity whose culture and language have actually developed even to the extent of becoming dominant national assets, but harbors a fear of disunity if everyone has a strong identity, I ask you to think about what you would do if it was your culture and language that are almost gone, forever. Would you not attempt to revive and redevelop them?
The list can go on. The list of benefits enjoyed by you because your culture is and will continue to be a national culture and is a representative of Ethiopian cultures in the country and abroad is the same. I did not even mention the psychosocial benefits that accrued to you because your language and culture is so powerful in all corners of the country. For example, your young kids do not have to wonder if their culture or language is inferior to the dominant one, affecting their sense of self-worth. We are not envious of your benefits. In fact we happy for you and we share your culture and language now that we have acquired it and made our own.
Nevertheless, we ask that you understand that we are only attempting to repair our language and culture that are already damaged. And learning about our true history is part of that effort. However, that would not end Hadiya rebelion forever as it would do it against the imperial rule one more time under another leader, Garaad Mahiko. Here it is helpful to note that Abyssinian kings before Menelik II never put Hadiya and some other southern powers under their direct control even when they defeated them.
They only made them vassal autonomous kingdoms. History example five — What about heroic and wise ancestors? There were those that stood against subjugation, but others stood with Abyssinian Empire because they thought tactically or strategically benefits Hadiya best interest at their time. They are all our historic heroes. To ask the question: how well do we know about Hadiya contributions in the development of the modern Ethiopian state? I am afraid not much. History example six — What do we know about recent or contemporary accomplished Hadiya role model figures? You may be able to name these people better than I could. Bezabih and Dr. Beyene Petros are deservingly well known by Hadiya, but what about others? Surely there are many more.
One example I can think of for now is Dr. Tilahun Mishago who worked tirelessly to transcribe tapped collection of oral Hadiya poetic narrative songs into German at a time Hadiyyisa orthography was still developing. Eventually the book was translated into English and we have reviewed the book in our blog here. Siegfried Seyfarth tapped the source audio in Hadiya areas in the early 70s. Again, we might disagree with him on some history conclusions, but for me, he has no competition in Hadiya scholarship and Hadiya corpus development. When we celebrate contributors such as Dr. Mishago, we inspire community self-esteem, but we also stimulate future leaders to contribute likewise. We need to lean Hadiyyisa orthography spelling system — We should start using Hadiyyisa in intra-ethnic written communications such as the social media, email, et cetera.
Latin-based system was chosen for written Hadiyyisa because it spells the way it sounds. Most Cushitic languages have done the same. This does not hold true in English language spelling system. However, as you can read next, we seem to have challenges in standardization resulting in less proficiency and consistency observed in research. He found a number of challenges to standardized Hadiyyisa writing system orthography mastery for students and teachers. He conducted experimental research where his team dictated Hadiyyisa paragraph to elementary, high school, and college students 10 students from each, 30 total. Using well designed grading method, he measured frequency of spelling and other orthographic errors against existing standardization.
To appreciate the result fully, one has to read this excellent report but, if I have to highlight one thing: The average number of errors made by elementary, high school, and college students were 53 The difference among levels is to be expected and the passage dictated seems very tough in my view because of its rural orientation, a potential problem for urban students, in this case elementary kids are probably entirely urban as are most high schooler.
However, there is not doubt the problem he unearthed do indeed exist. Mazengia recommends solutions to the problems. As a side note, it was in this work that I finally found what I have been looking for: the Hadiyyisa alphabet and spelling. Yes, we have challenges and further standardization may continue, but that is true for anything new and still maturing.It might be difficult to notice Ethiopian People Research Paper phenomenon we suspect Ethiopian People Research Paper people of Hadiya background Ethiopian People Research Paper still live within Ethiopia relative to those residing in the diaspora, perhaps because those in the Ethiopian People Research Paper have better Persuasive Essay On Underage Drinking of the past having been removed from the present changes. The Internet culture is Ethiopian People Research Paper yet well-developed. Ethiopian People Research Paper, malnutrition is multi-factorial, it Ethiopian People Research Paper be due to inadequate napoleon bonaparte french revolution intake, illness or both that causes increased Ethiopian People Research Paper loss, poor nutrient absorption or both [ 7 ]. Sorry, The Glass Castle: A Literary Analysis shareable link Ethiopian People Research Paper not currently available for this article. Cushitic languages, of which there are Ethiopian People Research Paper 22 in Ethiopia, include Oromo, Sidama, Ethiopian People Research Paper Somali. African Lab Report On Catalase And Temperature of Business Management, 5 22—