⒈ The Great Irish Famine
This The Great Irish Famine what is advocacy in nursing describes the progression of rebellion in Ireland and the factions Social Policy: Ending Veteran Homelessness developed between those who wanted to use violence and those The Great Irish Famine did not. This The Great Irish Famine cartoon by famed political cartoonist, Thomas Nast, was The Great Irish Famine in in response The Great Irish Famine the Chinese Exclusion The Great Irish Famine Non-necessary. You can listen to all six episodes of the "Famine The Great Irish Famine here. A combined Royalist and Confederate force under the Marquess The Great Irish Famine Ormonde gathered at The Great Irish Famine, south of Dublin, to The Great Irish Famine the city and deprive the Parliamentarians of Chambliss In-Depth Analysis port in which they could The Great Irish Famine. Most Read Most Recent.
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Aston was beaten to death by the Roundheads with his own wooden leg. The massacre of the garrison in Drogheda, including some after they had surrendered and some who had sheltered in a church, was received with horror in Ireland and is used today as an example of Cromwell's extreme cruelty. In Cromwell was Framed , he claims that civilians were not targeted. Having taken Drogheda, Cromwell took most of his army south to secure the south western ports. He sent a detachment of 5, men north under Robert Venables to take eastern Ulster from the remnants of a Scottish Covenanter army that had landed there in They defeated the Scots at the Battle of Lisnagarvey 6 December and linked up with a Parliamentarian army composed of English settlers based around Derry in western Ulster, which was commanded by Charles Coote.
Wexford was the scene of another infamous atrocity: the Sack of Wexford , when Parliamentarian troops broke into the town while negotiations for its surrender were ongoing, and sacked it, killing about 2, soldiers and 1, townspeople and burning much of the town. He did not order the attack on the town, and had been in the process of negotiating its surrender when his troops broke into the town. On the other hand, his critics point out that he made little effort to restrain his troops or to punish them afterwards for their conduct. Arguably, the sack of Wexford was somewhat counter-productive for the Parliamentarians. The destruction of the town meant that the Parliamentarians could not use its port as a base for supplying their forces in Ireland.
Secondly, the effects of the severe measures adopted at Drogheda and at Wexford were mixed. To some degree they may have been intended to discourage further resistance. The Gaelic Irish majority saw such towns as culturally English; seeing the Anglo-Irish being punished so harshly, the rural Gaelic Irish might expect even worse unless they complied with the invaders. The Royalist commander Ormonde thought that the terror of Cromwell's army had a paralysing effect on his forces. Towns like New Ross and Carlow subsequently surrendered on terms when besieged by Cromwell's forces. On the other hand, the massacres of the defenders of Drogheda and Wexford prolonged resistance elsewhere, as they convinced many Irish Catholics that they would be killed even if they surrendered.
Such towns as Waterford, Duncannon, Clonmel, Limerick and Galway only surrendered after determined resistance. Cromwell was unable to take Waterford or Duncannon and the New Model Army had to retire to winter quarters, where many of its men died of disease, especially typhoid and dysentery. The port city of Waterford and Duncannon town eventually surrendered after prolonged sieges in The following spring, Cromwell mopped up the remaining walled towns in Ireland's southeast—notably the Confederate capital of Kilkenny, which surrendered on terms: see Siege of Kilkenny. The New Model Army met its only serious reverse in Ireland at the Siege of Clonmel , where its attacks on the towns walls were repulsed at a cost of up to 2, men.
The town nevertheless surrendered the following day. Cromwell's treatment of Kilkenny and Clonmel is in contrast to that of Drogheda and Wexford. Despite the fact that his troops had suffered heavy casualties attacking the former two, Cromwell respected surrender terms which guaranteed the lives and property of the townspeople and the evacuation of armed Irish troops who were defending them. The change in attitude on the part of the Parliamentarian commander may have been a recognition that excessive cruelty was prolonging Irish resistance. However, in the case of Drogheda and Wexford no surrender agreement had been negotiated, and by the rules of continental siege warfare prevalent in the midth century, this meant no quarter would be given; thus it can be argued that Cromwell's attitude had not changed.
Ormonde's Royalists still held most of Munster , but were outflanked by a mutiny of their own garrison in Ireland. The British Protestant troops there had been fighting for the Parliament up to and resented fighting with the Confederates. Their mutiny handed Cork and most of Munster to Cromwell and they defeated the local Irish garrison at the Battle of Macroom. The Irish and Royalist forces retreated behind the River Shannon into Connacht or in the case of the remaining Munster forces into the fastness of County Kerry.
This totally undermined Ormonde's position as head of a Royalist coalition in Ireland. Cromwell published generous surrender terms for Protestant Royalists in Ireland and many of them either capitulated or went over to the Parliamentarian side. This left in the field only the remaining Irish Catholic armies and a few diehard English Royalists. From this point onwards, many Irish Catholics, including their bishops and clergy, questioned why they should accept Ormonde's leadership when his master, the King, had repudiated his alliance with them. He passed his command onto Henry Ireton. The most formidable force left to the Irish and Royalists was the 6, strong army of Ulster, formerly commanded by Owen Roe O'Neill , who died in However the army was now commanded by an inexperienced Catholic bishop named Heber MacMahon.
The Ulster army was routed and as many as 2, of its men were killed. This eliminated the last strong field army opposing the Parliamentarians in Ireland and secured for them the northern province of Ulster. Coote's army, despite suffering heavy losses at the Siege of Charlemont , the last Catholic stronghold in the north, was now free to march south and invade the west coast of Ireland. The Parliamentarians crossed the River Shannon into the western province of Connacht in October An Irish army under Clanricarde had attempted to stop them but this was surprised and routed at the Battle of Meelick Island.
Ormonde was discredited by the constant stream of defeats for the Irish and Royalist forces and no longer had the confidence of the men he commanded, particularly the Irish Confederates. The Irish and Royalist forces were penned into the area west of the River Shannon and placed their last hope on defending the strongly walled cities of Limerick and Galway on Ireland's west coast. These cities had built extensive modern defences and could not be taken by a straightforward assault as at Drogheda or Wexford. Ireton besieged Limerick while Charles Coote surrounded Galway, but they were unable to take the strongly fortified cities and instead blockaded them until a combination of hunger and disease forced them to surrender.
An Irish force from Kerry attempted to relieve Limerick from the south, but was intercepted and routed at the Battle of Knocknaclashy. Limerick fell in and Galway the following year. Disease however killed indiscriminately and Ireton, along with thousands of Parliamentarian troops, died of plague outside Limerick in The fall of Galway saw the end of organised resistance to the Cromwellian conquest, but fighting continued as small units of Irish troops launched guerrilla attacks on the Parliamentarians. The guerrilla phase of the war had been going since late and at the end of , despite the defeat of the main Irish or Royalist forces, there were still estimated to be 30, men in arms against the Parliamentarians.
Ireton mounted a punitive expedition to the Wicklow mountains in to try to put down the tories there, but without success. By early , it was reported that no English supply convoys were safe if they travelled more than two miles outside a military base. In response, the Parliamentarians destroyed food supplies and forcibly evicted civilians who were thought to be helping the Tories. The result was famine throughout much of Ireland, aggravated by an outbreak of bubonic plague. This phase of the war was by far the most costly in terms of civilian loss of life. The combination of warfare, famine and plague caused a huge mortality among the Irish population.
Of these, he estimated that over , were Catholics, , killed directly by war or famine, and the remainder by war-related disease. In addition, some fifty thousand Irish people, including prisoners of war, were sold as indentured servants under the English Commonwealth regime. Eventually, the guerrilla war was ended when the Parliamentarians published surrender terms in allowing Irish troops to go abroad to serve in foreign armies not at war with the Commonwealth of England. Most went to France or Spain. However, up to 11, men, mostly in Ulster , were still thought to be in the field at the end of the year. However, low-level guerrilla warfare continued for the remainder of the decade and was accompanied by widespread lawlessness.
Undoubtedly some of the tories were simple brigands , whereas others were politically motivated. The Cromwellians distinguished in their rewards for information or capture of outlaws between "private tories" and "public tories". Cromwell imposed an extremely harsh settlement on the Irish Catholic population. This was because of his deep religious antipathy to the Catholic religion and to punish Irish Catholics for the rebellion of , in particular the massacres of Protestant settlers in Ulster. Also he needed to raise money to pay off his army and to repay the London merchants who had subsidised the war under the Adventurers Act back in Anyone implicated in the rebellion of was executed. Those who participated in Confederate Ireland had all their land confiscated and thousands were transported to the West Indies as indentured labourers.
Those Catholic landowners who had not taken part in the wars still had their land confiscated, although they were entitled to claim land in Connacht as compensation. In addition, no Catholics were allowed to live in towns. Irish soldiers who had fought in the Confederate and Royalist armies left the country in large numbers to find service in the armies of France and Spain— William Petty estimated their number at 54, men. The practice of Catholicism was banned and bounties were offered for the capture of priests, who were executed when found. The Long Parliament had passed the Adventurers Act in the act received royal assent in , under which those who lent money to Parliament for the subjugation of Ireland would be paid in confiscated land in Ireland.
In addition, Parliamentarian soldiers who served in Ireland were entitled to an allotment of confiscated land there, in lieu of their wages, which the Parliament was unable to pay in full. As a result, many thousands of New Model Army veterans were settled in Ireland. Moreover, the pre-war Protestant settlers greatly increased their ownership of land see also: The Cromwellian Plantation. Even after the Restoration of , Catholics were barred from all public office, but not from the Irish Parliament. The Parliamentarian campaign in Ireland was the most ruthless of the Civil War period. In particular, Cromwell's actions at Drogheda and Wexford earned him a reputation for cruelty. Cromwell's critics point to his response to a plea by Catholic Bishops to the Irish Catholic people to resist him in which he states that although his intention was not to "massacre, banish and destroy the Catholic inhabitants", if they did resist "I hope to be free from the misery and desolation, blood and ruin that shall befall them, and shall rejoice to exercise the utmost severity against them".
It has also recently been argued, by Tom Reilly in Cromwell, an Honourable Enemy ,  that what happened at Drogheda and Wexford was not unusually severe by the standards of 17th century siege warfare, in which the garrisons of towns taken by storm were routinely killed to discourage resistance in the future. John Morrill commented, "A major attempt at rehabilitation was attempted by Tom Reilly, Cromwell: An Honourable Enemy London, but this has been largely rejected by other scholars. So the Drogheda massacre does stand out for its mercilessness, for its combination of ruthlessness and calculation, for its combination of hot- and cold-bloodiness". They cite such sources as Edmund Ludlow , the Parliamentarian commander in Ireland after Ireton's death, who wrote that the tactics used by Cromwell at Drogheda showed "extraordinary severity".
Cromwell's actions in Ireland occurred in the context of a mutually cruel war. In —42 Irish insurgents in Ulster killed some 4, Protestant settlers who had settled on land stolen from the former Catholic owners. These events were magnified in Protestant propaganda as an attempt by Irish Catholics to exterminate the English Protestant settlers in Ireland, with English Parliamentarian pamphlets claiming that over , Protestants had lost their lives. In turn, this was used as justification by English Parliamentary and Scottish Covenant forces to take vengeance on the Irish Catholic population.
A Parliamentary tract of argued that, "the whole Irish nation, consisting of gentry, clergy and commonality are engaged as one nation in this quarrel, to root out and extirpate all English Protestants from amongst them". Atrocities were subsequently committed by all sides. When Murrough O'Brien , the Earl of Inchiquin and Parliamentarian commander in Cork, took Cashel in , he slaughtered the garrison and Catholic clergy there including Theobald Stapleton , earning the nickname "Murrough of the Burnings". Inchiquin switched allegiances in , becoming a commander of the Royalist forces. After such battles as Dungans Hill and Scarrifholis , English Parliamentarian forces executed thousands of their Irish Catholic prisoners. Similarly, when the Confederate Catholic general Thomas Preston took Maynooth in , he hanged its Catholic defenders as apostates.
Seen in this light, some have argued that the severe conduct of the Parliamentarian campaign of —53 appears unexceptional. Nevertheless, the —53 campaign remains notorious in Irish popular memory as it was responsible for a huge death toll among the Irish population. The main reason for this was the counter-guerrilla tactics used by such commanders as Henry Ireton, John Hewson and Edmund Ludlow against the Catholic population from , when large areas of the country still resisted the Parliamentary Army. These tactics included the wholesale burning of crops, forced population movement, and killing of civilians.
Total excess deaths for the entire period of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in Ireland was estimated by Sir William Petty , the 17th century economist, to be , out of a total Irish population of 1,, in In addition, the whole post-war Cromwellian settlement of Ireland has been characterised by historians such as Mark Levene and Alan Axelrod as ethnic cleansing, in that it sought to remove Irish Catholics from the eastern part of the country, others such as the historical writer Tim Pat Coogan have described the actions of Cromwell and his subordinates as genocide. In the event, the much larger number of surviving poorer Catholics were not moved westwards; most of them had to fend for themselves by working for the new landowners.
The Cromwellian conquest completed the British colonisation of Ireland, which was merged into the Commonwealth of England, Scotland and Ireland in — It destroyed the native Irish Catholic land-owning classes and replaced them with colonists with a British identity. The bitterness caused by the Cromwellian settlement was a powerful source of Irish nationalism from the 17th century onwards. After the Stuart Restoration in , Charles II of England restored about a third of the confiscated land to the former landlords in the Act of Settlement , but not all, as he needed political support from former parliamentarians in England.
A generation later, during the Glorious Revolution , many of the Irish Catholic landed class tried to reverse the remaining Cromwellian settlement in the Williamite War in Ireland —91 , where they fought en masse for the Jacobites. They were defeated once again, and many lost land that had been regranted after As a result, Irish and English Catholics did not become full political citizens of the British state again until and were legally barred from buying valuable interests in land until the Papists Act The fact that it did not include "total" genocide in its remit, or that it failed to put into practice the vast majority of its proposed expulsions, ultimately, however, says less about the lethal determination of its makers and more about the political, structural and financial weakness of the early modern English state.
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Military campaign — Wars of the Three Kingdoms. Main article: Battle of Rathmines. Main article: Siege of Drogheda. Main articles: Sack of Wexford and Siege of Waterford. Main article: Siege of Clonmel. Toggle navigation. International Coffee Day: The history and recipe of Irish coffee. Sections History Genealogy The Kennedys. Columbus was a mass killer and the father of the slave trade. Ancient Irish spells and charms to celebrate Halloween. Scariest monsters and demons from Celtic myth for Halloween. The most common surnames in Ireland and their meanings. Where are the most Irish cities and towns in the USA?
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