❤❤❤ Indigenous Identity In Latin America

Friday, October 15, 2021 3:42:42 AM

Indigenous Identity In Latin America

By Kelley Marks. With the transatlantic trade re-opening following the peace, Europe looked Indigenous Identity In Latin America it would need Latin American food exports and raw materials. Once Brazil Indigenous Identity In Latin America its independence, this Indigenous Identity In Latin America languished. In the twentieth century there have been several types of migration. Many followed folk Catholicism Indigenous Identity In Latin America, venerated saints, and celebrated religious festivals. The Crucible: A Short Story Gunn Allen also explains how Essay On Single Gender Schools North Indigenous Identity In Latin America indigenous communities were Indigenous Identity In Latin America and their belief Indigenous Identity In Latin America revolved around female deities, yet that changed with colonization.

Coyuntura 2020 Panel: Indigenous Identities in the Region Known As Latin-America Part 1

In about half of the girls aged between 12 and 17 were not in the educational system at all. However, higher education remained out of reach for many, with only Costa Rica making significant advances, doubling the proportion of indigenous women between 18 and 22 in school or university. Years in education was seen to cut the number of children had by indigenous women by up to half. Despite advances in maternal healthcare in Latin America, data suggested that indigenous women were much more likely to die in childbirth or pregnancy complications. Del Popolo said when indigenous women leave their home territories they risk losing their ethnic identity. Wider society loses out, she added, as the women cannot fulfil their role as protectors of crop diversity.

Myrna Cunningham, a member of the UN permanent forum on indigenous issues at the conference, said: "The analysis covers only Latin America, but we know from accounts of women at this event, as well as from recent surveys, that the problems identified here are universal. In a declaration, the conference participants called for indigenous women to be a priority at the UN's world conference on indigenous peoples next year. The declaration also called for nation states to respect "our rights to lands, territories and resources as enshrined … in the UN declaration on the rights of indigenous peoples", adding that "indigenous women are active human rights defenders of all individual and collective human rights of our peoples".

Agnes Williams, clan mother of the Nation of Seneca Indians, part of the Iriquois confederacy in both the US and Canada, told the Guardian that the pollution from extractive industries was the principal threat to their "cultural integrity and sacred relationship with the earth". Amid the challenges posed by climate change, pollution and loss of territory, many of the women leaders showed they were well-versed with the modern world while maintaining their traditional lifestyles. The Sami in Norway have three-hour broadcasts in their language on state television, said Gudrun Lindi, maintaining their cultural identity in Europe's wealthiest nation. Wearing a traditional red hat and blue dress, Lindi said the women in Sami communities were often better educated than the men and had found new ways to deal with problems.

Rural movements have made diverse demands related to unequal land distribution, displacement at the hands of development projects and dams, environmental and Indigenous concerns, neoliberal agricultural restructuring, and insufficient means of livelihood. In Bolivia, coca workers organized into a union, and Evo Morales , ethnically an Aymara, became its head. The cocaleros supported the struggles against in the Cochabamba water war. The rural-urban coalition became a political party, Movement for Socialism Bolivia MAS , which decisively won the presidential election, making Evo Morales the first Indigenous president of Bolivia.

A documentary of the campaign, Cocalero , shows how they successfully organized. A number of movements have benefited considerably from transnational support from conservationists and INGOs. Indigenous movements account for a large portion of rural social movements, including in Mexico the Zapatista rebellion and the broad Indigenous movement in Guerrero, [] Also important are the Confederation of Indigenous Nationalities of Ecuador CONAIE and Indigenous organizations in the Amazon region of Ecuador and Bolivia, pan-Mayan communities in Guatemala, and mobilization by the Indigenous groups of Yanomami peoples in the Amazon, Kuna peoples in Panama, and Altiplano Aymara and Quechua peoples in Bolivia.

Other significant types of social movements include labor struggles and strikes, such as recovered factories in Argentina. In Argentina in the wake of the state terrorism, a gender-based movement of the Mothers of the Plaza de Mayo arose in Argentina. Protests against maquila production have taken place; it has been seen largely as a women's issue because of how assembly plants draw on women for cheap labor. In many countries in the early s, left-wing political parties have risen to power. Following the pink tide, the conservative wave swept across the continent. Several right-wing leaders rose to power, including Argentina's Mauricio Macri and Brazil's Michel Temer , following a controversial impeachment of the country's first female president.

The s commodities boom caused positive effects for many Latin American economies. Another trend is the rapidly increasing importance of the relations with China. With the end of the commodity boom in the s, economic stagnation or recession resulted in some countries. As a result, the left-wing governments of the Pink Tide lost support. The worst-hit was Venezuela, which is facing severe social and economic upheaval.

The corruption scandal of Odebrecht , a Brazilian conglomerate, has raised allegations of corruption across the region's governments see Operation Car Wash. The bribery ring has become the largest corruption scandal in Latin American history. The COVID pandemic proved a political challenge for many unstable Latin American democracies, with scholars identifying a decline in civil liberties as a result of opportunistic emergency powers. This was especially true for countries with strong presidential regimes, such as Brazil.

Wealth inequality in Latin America and the Caribbean remains a serious issue despite strong economic growth and improved social indicators. High inequality is rooted in the deepest exclusionary institutions of the Casta system [] [] [] that have been perpetuated ever since colonial times and that have survived different political and economic regimes. Inequality has been reproduced and transmitted through generations because Latin American political systems allow a differentiated access on the influence that social groups have in the decision making process, and it responds in different ways to the least favored groups that have less political representation and capacity of pressure. Because inequality in gender and location are near universal, race and ethnicity play a larger, more integral role in the unequal discriminatory practices in Latin America.

These differences have a strong impact on the distribution of income, capital and political standing. Latin America is the region with the highest levels of income inequality in the world. Green cells indicate the best performance in each category while red indicates the lowest. Urbanization has accelerated starting in the mid-twentieth century, especially to capital cities, or in the case of Brazil, traditional economic and political hubs founded in the colonial era.

The following is a list of the ten largest metropolitan areas in Latin America. Latin American populations are diverse, with descendants of the Indigenous peoples, European whites, Africans initially brought as slaves, and Asians, as well as new immigrants. Mixing of groups was a fact of life at contact of the Old World and the New, but colonial regimes established legal and social discrimination against non-white populations simply on the basis perceived ethnicity and skin color. Social class was usually linked to a person's racial category, with whites on top.

During the colonial era, with a dearth initially of European women, European men and Indigenous women and African women produced what were considered mixed-race children. In Spanish America, the so-called Sociedad de castas or Sistema de castas was constructed by white elites to try to rationalize the processes at work. In the sixteenth century the Spanish crown sought to protect Indigenous populations from exploitation by white elites for their labor and land. In the religious sphere, Indigenous were deemed perpetual neophytes in the Catholic faith, which meant Indigenous men not eligible to be ordained as Catholic priests; however, Indigenous were also excluded from the jurisdiction of the Inquisition.

Catholics saw military conquest and religious conquest as being two parts of incorporation of Indigenous populations, suppressing Indigenous religious practices and eliminating the Indigenous priesthood. Some worship continued as underground practices. Jews and other non-Catholics, such as Protestants all called "Lutherans" were banned from settling and were subject to the Inquisition. Considerable mixing of populations occurred in cities, while the countryside was largely Indigenous.

At independence in the early nineteenth century, in many places in Spanish America formal racial and legal distinctions disappeared, although black slavery was not abolished uniformly. All these areas had small white populations. In Brazil, coastal Indigenous peoples largely died out in the early sixteenth century, with Indigenous populations surviving far from cities, sugar plantations, and other European enterprises. In the nineteenth century, a number of Latin American countries sought immigrants from Europe and Asia. With the abolition of black slavery in , the Brazilian monarchy fell in By then, another source of cheap labor to work on coffee plantations was found in Japan.

Chinese male immigrants arrived in Cuba, Mexico, Peru and elsewhere. With political turmoil in Europe during the mid-nineteenth century and widespread poverty, many Germans, Spaniards, and Italians immigrated to Latin America in large numbers, welcomed by Latin American governments both as a source of labor as well as a way to increase the size of their white populations. In Argentina, many Afro-Argentines married Europeans so that in modern Argentina there is no discernible black population.

In Mexico, there was considerable discrimination against Asians, with calls for the expulsion of Chinese in northern Mexico during the Mexican Revolution and racially motivated massacres. In a number of Latin American countries, Indigenous groups have organized explicitly as Indigenous, to claim human rights and influence political power.

With the United Nations passage of anti-colonial resolutions in the General Assembly and the signing on of resolutions for Indigenous rights, the Indigenous are able to act to guarantee existence within nation-states with legal standing. Spanish is the predominant language of Latin America. Portuguese is spoken only in Brazil Brazilian Portuguese , the biggest and most populous country in the region. Spanish is the official language of most of the rest of the countries and territories on the Latin American mainland Spanish language in the Americas , as well as in Cuba , Puerto Rico where it is co-official with English , and the Dominican Republic. French is spoken in Haiti and in the French overseas departments of Guadeloupe , Martinique and Guiana.

It is also spoken by some Panamanians of Afro-Antillean descent. As Dutch is a Germanic language , these territories are not necessarily considered part of Latin America. In Latin American countries not named above, the population of speakers of Indigenous languages tend to be very small or even non-existent e. Mexico is possibly the only country that contains a wider variety of Indigenous languages than any Latin American country, but the most spoken language is Nahuatl.

In Peru , Quechua is an official language, alongside Spanish and any other Indigenous language in the areas where they predominate. In Ecuador , while holding no official status, the closely related Quichua is a recognized language of the Indigenous people under the country's constitution; however, it is only spoken by a few groups in the country's highlands. In Nicaragua , Spanish is the official language, but on the country's Caribbean coast English and Indigenous languages such as Miskito , Sumo , and Rama also hold official status.

Nahuatl is one of the 62 Native languages spoken by Indigenous people in Mexico, which are officially recognized by the government as "national languages" along with Spanish. Countries like Venezuela, Argentina and Brazil have their own dialects or variations of German and Italian. In several nations, especially in the Caribbean region, creole languages are spoken. The most widely spoken creole language in Latin America and the Caribbean is Haitian Creole , the predominant language of Haiti ; it is derived primarily from French and certain West African tongues with Amerindian , English, Portuguese and Spanish influences as well. Creole languages of mainland Latin America, similarly, are derived from European languages and various African tongues.

The Garifuna language is spoken along the Caribbean coast in Honduras , Guatemala , Nicaragua and Belize mostly by the Garifuna people a mixed race Zambo people who were the result of mixing between Indigenous Caribbeans and escaped Black slaves. Primarily an Arawakan language , it has influences from Caribbean and European languages. Archaeologists have deciphered over 15 pre-Columbian distinct writing systems from mesoamerican societies. More than half of these are converts from Roman Catholicism. The entire hemisphere was settled by migrants from Asia, Europe, and Africa, so that migration is not a new phenomenon. Native American populations settled throughout the hemisphere before the arrival of Europeans in the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries, and the forced migration of slaves from Africa.

In the post-independence period, a number of Latin American countries sought to attract European immigrants as a source of labor as well as to deliberately change the proportions of racial and ethnic groups within their borders. Chile, Argentina, and Brazil actively recruited labor from Catholic southern Europe, where populations were poor and sought better economic opportunities. Many nineteenth-century immigrants went to the United States and Canada, but a significant number arrived in Latin America.

Although Mexico tried to attract immigrants, it largely failed. There is a significant population of Japanese descent in Brazil. Cuba and Peru recruited Chinese labor in the late nineteenth century. Some Chinese immigrants who were excluded from immigrating to the U. In the twentieth century there have been several types of migration. One is the movement of rural populations within a given country to cities in search of work, causing many Latin American cities to grow significantly. Another is movement of populations internationally, often fleeing repression or war. Other international migration is for economic reasons, often unregulated or migrants being undocumented. Mexicans immigrated to the U. Economic migration from Mexico followed the crash of the Mexican economy in the s.

Some were only transiting in the region, but others stayed and created communities. In the aftermath of the Cuban Revolution, middle class and elite Cubans moved to the U. Some fled Chile for the U. In the is, economic stress in Ecuador triggered considerable migration to Spain and the U. Some Latin American countries seek to strengthen links between migrants and their states of origin, while promoting their integration in the receiving state. These Emigrant Policies focus on the rights, obligations and opportunities for participation of emigrated citizens who already live outside the borders of the country of origin. Research on Latin America shows that the extension of policies towards migrants is linked to a focus on civil rights and state benefits that can positively influence integration in recipient countries.

In addition, the tolerance of dual citizenship has spread more in Latin America than in any other region of the world. Despite significant progress, education access and school completion remains unequal in Latin America. The region has made great progress in educational coverage; almost all children attend primary school and access to secondary education has increased considerably.

Quality issues such as poor teaching methods, lack of appropriate equipment and overcrowding exist throughout the region. These issues lead to adolescents dropping out of the educational system early. Compared to prior generations, Latin American youth have seen an increase in their levels of education. On average, they have completed two years schooling more than their parents. However, there are still 23 million children in the region between the ages of 4 and 17 outside of the formal education system. Among primary school age children ages 6 to 12 , coverage is almost universal; however there is still a need to incorporate 5 million children in the primary education system.

These children live mostly in remote areas, are Indigenous or Afro-descendants and live in extreme poverty. Currently, more than half of low income children or living in rural areas fail to complete nine years of education. Latin America and the Caribbean have been cited by numerous sources to be the most dangerous regions in the world. Many analysts attribute the reason to why the region has such an alarming crime rate and criminal culture is largely due to social and income inequality within the region, they say that growing social inequality is fueling crime in the region. Crime and violence prevention and public security are now important issues for governments and citizens in Latin America and the Caribbean region.

Homicide rates in Latin America are the highest in the world. From the early s through the mids, homicide rates increased by 50 percent. Latin America and the Caribbean experienced more than 2. The major victims of such homicides are young men, 69 percent of whom are between the ages of 15 and 19 years old. Countries with the highest homicide rate per year per , inhabitants as of were: El Salvador , Honduras 64, Venezuela 57, Jamaica 43, Belize Brazil has more overall homicides than any country in the world, at 50,, accounting for one in 10 globally.

Water supply and sanitation in Latin America is characterized by insufficient access and in many cases by poor service quality, with detrimental impacts on public health. Financing of water and sanitation remains a serious challenge. While feminist movements became prevalent in Europe and North America in the s and s, the women of Latin America were gathering to oppose dictatorships and civil wars.

In the s, many of the groups that made up the women's movement began to evolve in order to adapt to a changing political climate. These groups focused on specific policy issues, such as abortion , and were not composed exclusively of civil society actors. During this same time period, anti-abortion activism was also beginning to gain momentum. The Vatican replaced hundreds of progressive clergy and summarily repressed discussions of reproductive issues.

Groups continuing to fight for legal abortion across the region have faced a strong resistance from the Catholic church as well as the religious right in the United States. Although a majority of countries within the region are officially secular, the church continues to have an extensive influence within the region due to Latin America being the largest Catholic region in the world.

The religious right in the United States holds substantial clout over the political right in its own country, which has resulted in the United States banning federal funding for international NGOs. The environment of Latin America has been changed by human use in the expanding of agriculture, new agricultural technologies, including the Green Revolution , extraction of minerals, growth of cities, redirection of rivers by the construction of dams for irrigation, drinking water, and hydroelectric power.

In the twentieth century, there is a growing movement to protect nature and many governments have sought recognition of natural sites by the UNESCO World Heritage Sites , Brazil, Mexico, and Peru currently have the greatest number of natural sites. In Central America , the following stand out:. Brazil is the world's largest exporter of chicken meat : 3. The country was the second largest producer of beef in , responsible for This year, the country produced In , Argentina was the 4th largest producer of beef in the world, with a production of 3 million tons behind only USA, Brazil and China. Uruguay is also a major meat producer. In , it produced thousand tons of beef.

In the production of chicken meat , Mexico is among the 10 largest producers in the world, Argentina among the 15 largest and Peru and Colombia among the 20 largest. In the production of beef, Mexico is one of the 10 largest producers in the world and Colombia is one of the 20 largest producers. In the production of pork , Mexico is among the 15 largest producers in the world. In the production of honey , Argentina is among the 5 largest producers in the world, Mexico among the 10 largest and Brazil among the 15 largest. In terms of cow's milk production, Mexico is among the 15 largest producers in the world and Argentina among the Mining is one of the most important economic sectors in Latin America, especially for Chile , Peru and Bolivia , whose economies are highly dependent on this sector.

In terms of gemstones, Brazil is the world's largest producer of amethyst , topaz , agate and one of the main producers of tourmaline , emerald , aquamarine , garnet and opal. Chile contributes about a third of the world copper production. In , Peru was the 2nd largest world producer of copper [] and silver , [] 8th largest world producer of gold , [] 3rd largest world producer of lead , [] 2nd largest world producer of zinc , [] 4th largest world producer of tin , [] 5th largest world producer of boron [] and 4th largest world producer of molybdenum.

In , Bolivia was the 8th largest world producer of silver ; [] 4th largest world producer of boron ; [] 5th largest world producer of antimony ; [] 5th largest world producer of tin ; [] 6th largest world producer of tungsten ; [] 7th largest producer of zinc , [] and the 8th largest producer of lead. In , Argentina was the 4th largest world producer of lithium , [] the 9th largest world producer of silver , [] the 17th largest world producer of gold [] and the 7th largest world producer of boron. Colombia is the world's largest producer of emeralds. In , it extracted The country is among the 25 largest gold producers in the world.

In the production of oil , Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in , with 2. Mexico was the twelfth largest, with 2. Venezuela had a big drop in production after where it produced 2. In the production of natural gas , in , Argentina produced 1, bcf billions of cubic feet , Mexico produced , Venezuela , Brazil , Bolivia , Peru , Colombia In the production of coal , the continent had 3 of the 30 largest world producers in Colombia 12th , Mexico 24th and Brazil 27th. The World Bank annually lists the top manufacturing countries by total manufacturing value. In Latin America, few countries achieve projection in industrial activity: Brazil, Argentina, Mexico and, less prominently, Chile.

Begun late, the industrialization of these countries received a great boost from World War II: this prevented the countries at war from buying the products they were used to importing and exporting what they produced. At that time, benefiting from the abundant local raw material, the low wages paid to the labor force and a certain specialization brought by immigrants, countries such as Brazil, Mexico and Argentina, as well as Venezuela, Chile, Colombia and Peru, were able to implement important industrial parks. In general, in these countries there are industries that require little capital and simple technology for their installation, such as the food processing and textile industries.

The basic industries steel, etc. The industrial parks of Brazil, Mexico, Argentina and Chile, however, present much greater diversity and sophistication, producing advanced technology items. In the rest of Latin American countries, mainly in Central America, the processing industries of primary products for export predominate. In the food industry , in , Brazil was the second largest exporter of processed foods in the world. Transport in Latin America is basically carried out using the road mode, the most developed in the region. There is also a considerable infrastructure of ports and airports. The railway and fluvial sector, although it has potential, is usually treated in a secondary way. Brazil has more than 1.

The two most important highways in the country are BR and BR The three most important highways in the country are Route 9 , Route 7 and Route The most important highway in the country is the Route 5 Pan-American Highway [] These 4 countries are the ones with the best road infrastructure and with the largest number of double-lane highways, in South America. The roadway network in Mexico has an extent of , km , mi , [] of which , km 72, mi are paved, [] [] Of these, 10, km 6, mi are multi-lane expressways : 9, km 5, mi are four-lane highways and the rest have 6 or more lanes.

Due to the Andes Mountains , Amazon River and Amazon Forest , there have always been difficulties in implementing transcontinental or bioceanic highways. Practically the only route that existed was the one that connected Brazil to Buenos Aires, in Argentina and later to Santiago, in Chile. However, in recent years, with the combined effort of countries, new routes have started to emerge, such as Brazil-Peru Interoceanic Highway , and a new highway between Brazil, Paraguay, northern Argentina and northern Chile Bioceanic Corridor. There are more than 2, airports in Brazil. The country has the second largest number of airports in the world, behind only the United States.

Peru has important international airports such as Lima , Cuzco and Arequipa. There are 1, airports in Mexico, the third-largest number of airports by country in the world. Peru has important ports in Callao , Ilo and Matarani. The Brazilian railway network has an extension of about 30, kilometers. It is basically used for transporting ores. It came to have about , km of rails, but the lifting of tracks and the emphasis placed on motor transport gradually reduced it. It has four different trails and international connections with Paraguay, Bolivia, Chile, Brazil and Uruguay. Chile has almost 7, km of railways, with connections to Argentina, Bolivia and Peru. Colombia has only about 3, km of railways.

In Brazil, this transport is still underutilized: the most important waterway stretches, from an economic point of view, are found in the Southeast and South of the country. Its full use still depends on the construction of locks, major dredging works and, mainly, of ports that allow intermodal integration. The Brazilian government has undertaken an ambitious program to reduce dependence on imported petroleum. Brazil was the 10th largest oil producer in the world in , with 2. Production manages to supply the country's demand.

In January this year, 3. Brazil is one of the main world producers of hydroelectric power. In , Brazil had hydroelectric plants in operation, with an installed capacity of 98, MW, The region's installed electricity generation capacity totaled almost 42, MW, which represented about a third of Brazil's generation capacity. The South Region owns the Itaipu Dam , which was the largest hydroelectric plant in the world for several years, until the inauguration of Three Gorges Dam in China. It remains the second largest operating hydroelectric in the world. It has an installed generation capacity of 14 GW for 20 generating units of MW each.

Brazil's hydroelectric potential has not yet been fully exploited, so the country still has the capacity to build several renewable energy plants in its territory. As of February , [ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of wind power was Nuclear energy is produced by two reactors at Angra. It consists of two pressurized water reactors , Angra I, with capacity of MW, connected to the power grid in , and Angra II, with capacity of 1, MW, connected in As of July , [ref] according to ONS, total installed capacity of photovoltaic solar was In , Brazil was the 2nd largest country in the world in the production of energy through biomass energy production from solid biofuels and renewable waste , with 15,2 GW installed.

After Brazil, Mexico is the country in Latin America that most stands out in energy production. In , the country was the 14th largest petroleum producer in the world, and in it was the 12th largest exporter. In natural gas, the country was, in , the 21st largest producer in the world, and in it was the 29th largest exporter. Mexico was also the world's 24th largest producer of coal in In renewable energies, in , the country ranked 14th in the world in terms of installed wind energy 8.

In third place, Colombia stands out: In , the country was the 20th largest petroleum producer in the world, and in it was the 19th largest exporter. In natural gas, the country was, in , the 40th largest producer in the world. Colombia's biggest highlight is in coal, where the country was, in , the world's 12th largest producer and the 5th largest exporter. In renewable energies, in , the country ranked 45th in the world in terms of installed wind energy 0. Venezuela , which was one of the world's largest oil producers about 2.

The country also stands out in hydroelectricity, where it was the 14th country in the world in terms of installed capacity in 16,5 GW. Argentina was, in , the 18th largest producer in the world, and the largest producer in Latin America, of natural gas, in addition to being the 28th largest oil producer; although the country has the Vaca Muerta field, which holds close to 16 billion barrels of technically recoverable shale oil, and is the second largest shale natural gas deposit in the world, the country lacks the capacity to exploit the deposit: it is necessary capital, technology and knowledge that can only come from offshore energy companies, who view Argentina and its erratic economic policies with considerable suspicion, not wanting to invest in the country.

In renewable energies, in , the country ranked 27th in the world in terms of installed wind energy 2. The country has great future potential for the production of wind energy in the Patagonia region. Chile , although currently not a major energy producer, has great future potential for solar energy production in the Atacama Desert region. Paraguay stands out today in hydroelectric production thanks to the Itaipu Power Plant. Trinidad and Tobago and Bolivia stand out in the production of natural gas, where they were, respectively, the 20th and 31st largest in the world in Ecuador , because it consumes little energy, is part of OPEC and was the 27th largest oil producer in the world in , being the 22nd largest exporter in The major trade blocs or agreements in the region are the Pacific Alliance and Mercosur.

However, major reconfigurations are taking place along opposing approaches to integration and trade; Venezuela has officially withdrawn from both the CAN and G3 and it has been formally admitted into the Mercosur pending ratification from the Paraguayan legislature. The president-elect of Ecuador has manifested his intentions of following the same path. Income from tourism is key to the economy of several Latin American countries. It received by far the largest number of international tourists, with Latin American culture is a mixture of many cultural expressions worldwide.

It is the product of many diverse influences:. Due to the impact of Enlightenment ideals after the French revolution, a certain number of Iberian-American countries decriminalized homosexuality after France and French territories in the Americas in Some of the countries that abolished sodomy laws or banned any reference to state interference in consensual adult sexuality in the 19th century were Dominican Republic , Brazil , Peru , Mexico , Paraguay , Argentina , Honduras , Guatemala and El Salvador. Civil unions can be held in Chile. Beyond the rich tradition of Indigenous art, the development of Latin American visual art owed much to the influence of Spanish, Portuguese and French Baroque painting, which in turn often followed the trends of the Italian Masters.

In general, this artistic Eurocentrism began to fade in the early twentieth century, as Latin Americans began to acknowledge the uniqueness of their condition and started to follow their own path. From the early twentieth century, the art of Latin America was greatly inspired by the Constructivist Movement. Painter Frida Kahlo , one of the most famous Mexican artists, painted about her own life and the Mexican culture in a style combining Realism , Symbolism and Surrealism. Kahlo's work commands the highest selling price of all Latin American paintings. Colombian sculptor and painter Fernando Botero is also widely known [] [] [] [ by whom?

Latin American film is both rich and diverse. Historically, the main centers of production have been Mexico, Argentina, Brazil, and Cuba. Latin American film flourished after sound was introduced in cinema, which added a linguistic barrier to the export of Hollywood film south of the border. Mexican cinema started out in the silent era from to and flourished in the Golden Era of the s.

In the s, Mexico was the location for many cult horror and action movies. Argentine cinema has also been prominenent since the first half of the 20th century and today averages over 60 full-length titles yearly. The industry suffered during the — military dictatorship ; but re-emerged to produce the Academy Award winner The Official Story in A wave of imported US films again damaged the industry in the early s, though it soon recovered, thriving even during the Argentine economic crisis around Many Argentine movies produced during recent years have been internationally acclaimed, including Nueve reinas , Son of the Bride , El abrazo partido , El otro , the Foreign Language Academy Award winner El secreto de sus ojos and Wild Tales In Brazil , the Cinema Novo movement created a particular way of making movies with critical and intellectual screenplays, a clearer photography related to the light of the outdoors in a tropical landscape, and a political message.

The modern Brazilian film industry has become more profitable inside the country, and some of its productions have received prizes and recognition in Europe and the United States, with movies such as Central do Brasil , Cidade de Deus and Tropa de Elite An influx of Hollywood films affected the local film industry in Puerto Rico during the s and s, but several Puerto Rican films have been produced since and it has been recovering. Venezuelan television has also had a great impact in Latin America, is said that whilst "Venezuelan cinema began sporadically in the s[, it] only emerged as a national-cultural movement in the mids" when it gained state support and auteurs could produce work.

International co-productions with Latin America and Spain continued into this era and beyond, and Venezuelan films of this time were counted among the works of New Latin American Cinema. This period is known as Venezuela's Golden Age of cinema, having massive popularity even though it was a time of much social and political upheaval. Soy un delincuente was one of nine films for which the state gave substantial funding to produce, made in the year after the Venezuelan state began giving financial support to cinema in The support likely came from increased oil wealth in the early s, and the subsequent credit incentive policy.

At the time of its production the film was the most popular film in the country, and took a decade to be usurped from this position, even though it was only one in a string of films designed to tell social realist stories of struggle in the s and '60s. Film production peaked in —5, with considered Venezuelan cinema's most successful year by the state, thanks to over 4 million admissions to national films, according to Venezuelanalysis. Pre-Columbian cultures were primarily oral, though the Aztecs and Mayans, for instance, produced elaborate codices. Oral accounts of mythological and religious beliefs were also sometimes recorded after the arrival of European colonizers, as was the case with the Popol Vuh.

Towards the end of the 18th Century and the beginning of the 19th, a distinctive criollo literary tradition emerged, including the first novels such as Lizardi's El Periquillo Sarniento The 19th century also witnessed the realist work of Machado de Assis , who made use of surreal devices of metaphor and playful narrative construction, much admired by critic Harold Bloom. This was the first Latin American literary movement to influence literary culture outside of the region, and was also the first truly Latin American literature, in that national differences were no longer so much at issue. Latin America has produced many successful worldwide artists in terms of recorded global music sales.

Enrique Iglesias , although not a Latin American, has also contributed for the success of Latin music. Latin Caribbean music, such as merengue , bachata , salsa , and more recently reggaeton , from such countries as the Dominican Republic, Puerto Rico, Cuba, and Panama, has been strongly influenced by African rhythms and melodies. Haiti's compas is a genre of music that is influenced by its Latin Caribbean counterparts, along with elements of jazz and modern sounds.

Other influential Latin American sounds include the Antillean soca and calypso , the Honduran Garifuna punta , the Colombian cumbia and vallenato , the Chilean cueca , the Ecuadorian boleros , and rockoleras , the Mexican ranchera and the mariachi which is the epitome of Mexican soul, the Nicaraguan palo de Mayo , the Peruvian marinera and tondero , the Uruguayan candombe , the French Antillean zouk derived from Haitian compas and the various styles of music from pre-Columbian traditions that are widespread in the Andean region.

The classical composer Heitor Villa-Lobos — worked on the recording of Native musical traditions within his homeland of Brazil. The traditions of his homeland heavily influenced his classical works. Latin America has also produced world-class classical performers such as the Chilean pianist Claudio Arrau , Brazilian pianist Nelson Freire and the Argentine pianist and conductor Daniel Barenboim. Arguably, the main contribution to music entered through folklore, where the true soul of the Latin American and Caribbean countries is expressed. Latin pop , including many forms of rock, is popular in Latin America today see Spanish language rock and roll. More recently, reggaeton, which blends Jamaican reggae and dancehall with Latin America genres such as bomba and plena , as well as hip hop , is becoming more popular, in spite of the controversy surrounding its lyrics, dance steps Perreo and music videos.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Region of the Americas where Romance languages are primarily spoken. For Latin American, see Latin American. This article may require copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone, or spelling. You can assist by editing it. August Learn how and when to remove this template message. Main article: History of Latin America. Main articles: European colonization of the Americas , Spanish colonization of the Americas , and Portuguese colonization of the Americas. See also: Society in the Spanish Colonial Americas. Main articles: Latin American wars of independence , Spanish American wars of independence , and Independence of Brazil.

Government under traditional Spanish law. Loyal to Supreme Central Junta or Cortes. American junta or insurrection movement. Independent state declared or established. Height of French control of the Peninsula. Main article: History of Mexico. Main article: Guatemalan Revolution. Main article: Cuban Revolution. Main articles: Nicaraguan Revolution and Banana Wars. See also: Free Trade Area of the Americas.

Main article: Washington Consensus. See also: Pink tide. Main article: Conservative wave. Main article: Wealth inequality in Latin America. Further information: Latin Americans. See also: Demographics of South America. Main article: Religion in Latin America. See also: Education in Latin America. Main article: Crime and violence in Latin America. This section is an excerpt from Water supply and sanitation in Latin America. This section is an excerpt from Reproductive rights in Latin America. This article needs additional citations for verification. Please help improve this article by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. Main article: Latin American economy. See also: Environmental history of Latin America.

Main article: Agriculture in Latin America. Main articles: Energy policy of Brazil and Renewable energy in Brazil. Main article: Latin American culture. Main article: Latin American art. See also: List of Latin American artists. Main article: Latin American cinema. Main article: Latin American literature. See also: List of Latin American writers. World Bank. Retrieved September 12, Retrieved November 9, Brookings Institution.

Retrieved January 22, New York: Charles Scribner's Sons Britton ISBN Retrieved March 3, Retrieved February 10, Retrieved August 9, History of Modern Latin America: to the Present 2nd ed. The Idea of Latin America. Oxford: Wiley-Blackwell. Ortega y Medina, ed. Race and Nation in Modern Latin America. The American Historical Review. ISSN S2CID Cham, Switzerland. OCLC In Gutierrez, Ramon A. Berkeley: University of California Press. The word latinoamericano emerged in the years following the wars of independence in Spain's former colonies [ Reprinting an opinion piece by a correspondent in Havana on race relations in the Americas, El Clamor Publico of Los Angeles surmised that 'two rival races are competing with each other May 16, Retrieved April 23, Retrieved July 16, Retrieved July 4, New York: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich.

Skidmore, Thomas E. Smith Modern Latin America 6th ed. Encyclopedia of Latin American Popular Music. Latin America: A Regional Geography. New York: John Wiley and Sons. Dozer, Donald Marquand Latin America: An Interpretive History. New York: McGraw-Hill. Szulc, Tad Latin America. New York Times Company. Olien, Michael D. New York: Holt, Rinehart and Winston. Black, Jan Knippers, ed. Boulder: Westview Press. Burns, E. Bradford New York: Prentice-Hall. Accessed on line May 23, The World Bank. Retrieved July 17, Archived from the original on March 11, Retrieved December 9, Chicago: University of Chicago Press , 1, 3. Jaime Eyzaguirre en su tiempo in Spanish. Retrieved July 18, Schwartz, Early Latin America.

Hispanic American Historical Review 57 May , The Independence of Spanish America. New York: Oxford University Press Historia de la Argentina Vol. Uruguay: A Country Study. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture , vol. Colegio Woodville, n. October 24, Madrid: Alianza Editorial. Aug Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, vol. Encyclopedia of Latin American History and Culture, v. NYU Press. Imperial Japan's World War Two: — Transaction Publishers. Chicago: University of Chicago Press Cambridge Univ. Press Retrieved May 24, Center for Strategic and International Studies.

Retrieved May 22, Retrieved May 29, The Netherlands East Indies — The United States and Mexico , revised edition. New York: Atheneum Press, , Retrieved May 30, Rutgers University Press , New Jersey. Retrieved June 12, Retrieved February 6, Archived from the original on March 8, Retrieved December 2, London: Granta The History of Contemporary Latin America , The Cuban Boatlift.

Retrieved September 10, Army War College. A history of Latin America. Rendering unto Caesar? Religious competition and Catholic political strategy in Latin America, — Routledge, Is Latin America turning protestant? Univ of California Press, Latin America after Neoliberalism. Boulder, CO: Westview. Latin American Social Movements. Accessed 27 June Retrieved December 10, The New York Times. Retrieved June 16, Retrieved April 7, Los Angeles Times. July 14, Retrieved July 14, Democratic Theory. United Nations. Una mirada integral, un enfoque de derechos [ Inclusive social protection in Latin America.

An integral look, a focus on rights ]. March Encyclopedia of Race, Ethnicity and Society. For example, in many parts of Latin America, racial groupings are based less on the biological physical features and more on an intersection between physical features and social features such as economic class, dress, education, and context. Thus, a more fluid treatment allows for the construction of race as an achieved status rather than an ascribed status as is the case in the United States. Social Stratification in central Mexico — University of Texas Press.

Nevertheless, there is a popular consensus in Mexico today that these four categories represent major sectors of the nation and that they can be arranged into a rough hierarchy: whites and creoles at the top, a vast population of mestizos in the middle, and Indians perceived as both a racial and an ethnic component at the bottom. This popular hierarchy does not constitute a stratificational system or even a set of social classes, however, because its categories are neither exhaustive nor mutually exclusive. Nor is there a mestizo class, as phenotypical mestizos are found in all classes, though only rarely among the aristocracy and very frequently in the middle and lower classes.

Berkeley: University of California. This unprecedented expansion of the privileged segment of society could be tolerated by the Crown because in Mexico the indigenous population assumed the burden of personal tribute. The Aztecs Under Spanish Rule. Stanford: Stanford University. Journal of Latin American Studies. Archived from the original PDF on October 29, Retrieved August 11, University of Chicago. A History of Latin America. Malden, Mass. Ferreira et al.

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