⚡ Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes

Thursday, December 30, 2021 3:52:42 PM

Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes

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In Uganda, Former Child Soldiers Struggle to Overcome Horrors of War

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Pitch in for a constitutional lawyer and they would at least be doing something useful with Video Comments. We were pinned down for more than three hours as Iraqis hiding inside houses and a hospital and behind street corners fired a barrage of ammunition. Despite the marines' overwhelming firepower, hitting the Iraqis was not easy. The gunmen were not wearing uniforms and had planned their ambush well - stockpiling weapons in dozens of houses, between which they moved freely pretending to be civilians. They are even using women as scouts. The women come out waving at us, or with their hands raised.

We freeze, but the next minute we can see how she is looking at our positions and giving them away to the fighters hiding behind a street corner. It's very difficult to distinguish between the fighters and civilians. Many, including some children, were gunned down in the crossfire. In a surreal scene, a father and mother stood out on a balcony with their children in their arms to give them a better view of the battle raging below.

A few minutes later several US mortar shells landed in front of their house. In all probability, the family is dead. The fighting intensified. An Iraqi fighter emerged from behind a wall of sandbags yards away from our vehicle. Several times he managed to fire off an RPG at our positions. Bernize and other gunners fired dozens of rounds at his dugout, punching large holes into a house and lifting thick clouds of dust. Captain Mike Brooks, commander of Alpha company, pinned down in front of the mosque, called in tank support.

Armed with only a 9mm pistol, he jumped out of the back of his AAV with a young marine carrying a field radio on his back. Brooks, 34, from Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, had been in command of men for just over a year. He joined the marines when he was 19 because he felt that he was wasting his life. He needed direction, was a bit of a rebel and was impressed by the sense of pride in the corps. He is a soft-spoken man, fair but very firm. Brave too: I watched him sprint in front of enemy positions to brief some of his junior officers behind a wall. Behind us, two ton Abrams tanks rolled up, crushing the barrier separating the lanes on the highway. The earth shook violently as one tank, Desert Knight, stopped in front of our row of AAVS and fired several mm shells into buildings.

A few hundred yards down ambush alley there was carnage. The heavy vehicle shook but withstood the explosions. Then the Iraqis fired again. This time the rocket plunged into the vehicle through the open rooftop. The explosion was deadly, made 10 times more powerful by the ammunition stored in the back. The wreckage smouldered in the middle of the road. I jumped out from the rear hatch of our vehicle, briefly taking cover behind a wall. When I reached the stricken AAV, the scene was mayhem. The heavy, thick rear ramp had been blown open. There were pools of blood and bits of flesh everywhere. A severed leg, still wearing a desert boot, lay on what was left of the ramp among playing cards, a magazine, cans of Coke and a small bloodstained teddy bear.

Oh my God. Get in there. Get in there now and pull them out," shouted a gunner in a state verging on hysterical. There was panic and confusion as a group of young marines, shouting and cursing orders at one another, pulled out a maimed body. Two men struggled to lift the body on a stretcher and into the back of a Hummer, but it would not fit inside, so the stretcher remained almost upright, the dead man's leg, partly blown away, dangling in the air. They are trying to suck us into the city and we haven't got enough ass up here to sustain this.

We need more tanks, more helicopters. Did you see his leg? It was blown off. If at first the marines felt constrained by orders to protect civilians, by now the battle had become so intense that there was little time for niceties. Cobra helicopters were ordered to fire at a row of houses closest to our positions. There were massive explosions but the return fire barely died down. Behind us, as many as four AAVs that had driven down along the banks of the Euphrates were stuck in deep mud and coming under fire. About 1pm, after three hours of intense fighting, the order was given to regroup and try to head out of the city in convoy.

Several marines who had lost their vehicles piled into the back of ours. We raced along ambush alley at full speed, close to a line of houses. I don't even know how many friends I have lost. I don't care if they nuke that bloody city now. From one house they were waving while shooting at us with AKs from the next. It was insane. But there was more horror to come. Beside the smouldering wreckage of another AAV were the bodies of another four marines, laid out in the mud and covered with camouflage ponchos. There were body parts everywhere. One of the dead was Second Lieutenant Fred Pokorney, 31, a marine artillery officer from Washington state. He was a big guy, whose ill-fitting uniform was the butt of many jokes. It was supposed to have been a special day for Pokorney.

After 13 years of service, he was to be promoted to first lieutenant. The men of Charlie company had agreed they would all shake hands with him to celebrate as soon as they crossed the second bridge, their mission accomplished. It didn't happen. Pokorney made it over the second bridge and a few hundred yards down a highway through dusty flatlands before his vehicle was ambushed. Pokorney and his men had no chance. Fully loaded with ammunition, their truck exploded in the middle of the road, its remains burning for hours. Pokorney was hit in the chest by an RPG. Another man who died was Fitzgerald Jordan, a staff sergeant from Texas. I felt numb when I heard this. I had met Jordan 10 days before we moved into Nasiriya.

He was a character, always chewing tobacco and coming up to pat you on the back. He got me to fetch newspapers for him from Kuwait City. Later, we shared a bumpy ride across the desert in the back of a Humvee. A decorated Gulf war veteran, he used to complain about having to come back to Iraq. An older marine walked by carrying a huge chunk of flesh, so maimed it was impossible to tell which body part it was.

With tears in his eyes and blood splattered over his flak jacket, he held the remains of his friend in his arms until someone gave him a poncho to wrap them with. Frantic medics did what they could to relieve horrific injuries, until four helicopters landed in the middle of the highway to take the injured to a military hospital. Each wounded marine had a tag describing his injury. One had gunshot wounds to the face, another to the chest.

Another simply lay on his side in the sand with a tag reading: "Urgent - surgery, buttock. Some of his comrades, exhausted, covered in blood, dirt and sweat walked around dazed. There were loud cheers as the sound of the heaviest artillery yet to pound Nasiriya shook the ground. Before last week the overwhelming majority of these young men had never been in combat. Few had even seen a dead body. Now, their faces had changed. Anger and fear were fuelled by rumours that the bodies of American soldiers had been dragged through Nasiriya's streets. Some marines cried in the arms of friends, others sought comfort in the Bible. Next morning, the men of Alpha company talked about the fighting over MREs meals ready to eat.

They were jittery now and reacted nervously to any movement around their dugouts. They suspected that civilian cars, including taxis, had helped resupply the enemy inside the city. When cars were spotted speeding along two roads, frantic calls were made over the radio to get permission to "kill the vehicles". Twenty-four hours earlier it would almost certainly have been denied: now it was granted. Immediately, the level of force levelled at civilian vehicles was overwhelming. Tanks were placed on the road and AAVs lined along one side. Several taxis were destroyed by helicopter gunships as they drove down the road.

A lorry filled with sacks of wheat made the fatal mistake of driving through US lines. The order was given to fire. Several AAVs pounded it with a barrage of machinegun fire, riddling the windscreen with at least 20 holes. The driver was killed instantly. The lorry swerved off the road and into a ditch. Rumour spread that the driver had been armed and had fired at the marines. I walked up to the lorry, but could find no trace of a weapon. This was the start of day that claimed many civilian casualties. After the lorry a truck came down the road. Again the marines fired. Inside, four men were killed.

They had been travelling with some 10 other civilians, mainly women and children who were evacuated, crying, their clothes splattered in blood. Hours later a dog belonging to the dead driver was still by his side. The marines moved west to take a military barracks and secure their third objective, the third bridge, which carried a road out of the city. At the barracks, the marines hung a US flag from a statue of Saddam, but Lieutenant-Colonel Rick Grabowski, the battalion commander, ordered it down. He toured barracks. There were stacks of Russian-made ammunition and hundreds of Iraqi army uniforms, some new, others left behind by fleeing Iraqi soldiers. One room had a map of Nasiriya, showing its defences and two large cardboard arrows indicating the US plan of attack to take the two main bridges.

Above the map were several murals praising Saddam. One, which sickened the Americans, showed two large civilian planes crashing into tall buildings. As night fell again there was great tension, the marines fearing an ambush. Two tanks and three AAVs were placed at the north end of the third bridge, their guns pointing down towards Nasiriya, and given orders to shoot at any vehicle that drove towards American positions.

Though civilians on foot passed by safely, the policy was to shoot anything that moved on wheels. Inevitably, terrified civilians drove at speed to escape: marines took that speed to be a threat and hit out. During the night, our teeth on edge, we listened a dozen times as the AVVs' machineguns opened fire, cutting through cars and trucks like paper. Next morning I saw the result of this order - the dead civilians, the little girl in the orange and gold dress.

Suddenly, some of the young men who had crossed into Iraq with me reminded me now of their fathers' generation, the trigger-happy grunts of Vietnam. Covered in the mud from the violent storms, they were drained and dangerously aggressive. In the days afterwards, the marines consolidated their position and put a barrier of trucks across the bridge to stop anyone from driving across, so there were no more civilian deaths.

They also ruminated on what they had done. Some rationalised it. She then crossed back again with the child and went behind a wall. Within less than a minute a guy with an RPG came out and fired at us from behind the same wall. This happened a second time so I thought, "Okay, I get it. Let her come out again". She did and this time I took her out with my M Mike Brooks was one of the commanders who had given the order to shoot at civilian vehicles. It weighed on his mind, even though he felt he had no choice but to do everything to protect his marines from another ambush. On Friday, making coffee in the dust, he told me he had been writing a diary, partly for his wife Kelly, a nurse at home in Jacksonville, North Carolina, with their sons Colin, 6, and four-year-old twins Brian and Evan.

When he came to jotting down the incident about the two babies getting killed by his men he couldn't do it. But he said he would tell her when he got home. I offered to let him call his wife on my satellite phone to tell her he was okay. He turned down the offer and had me write and send her an e-mail instead. He was too emotional. If she heard his voice, he said, she would know that something was wrong. I happen to think that war is very much a part of human nature. It has always existed and always will exist. However, to date, no democracy has ever gone to war against another democracy. That should give us some hope. After all, there is nothing more natural than having sex and defecating, and we have managed to have some control over where and when we do those things, why not war, which is not nearly as much fun?

Here's a Crazy Bigot special question. Actually two. What if war part of human nature? What if attempts to suppress that part of human nature lead to even worse consequences than war? It is incumbent upon all of us crazy bigots to ask these questions of the sages who populate this board. And, my final Crazy Bigot question of the day: How many history professors does it take to change a light bulb? Special bonus points to anybody who can put the right Marxist spin on their answer. The aggressors were US! There was suppossed to be free elections in Vietnam in the late 's, but we prevented it from happening because we knew that Ho Chi Mihn would have won.

Now, I don't ignore the attrocities the communists committed once we pulled out '75, but that will never erase the crime we committed in going into another country, imposing a puppet leader, devestating the country side, disrupting people's way of life, murdering innocent Vietnamese, poisoning the land, and so forth simply because we thought Mihn was a Soviet tool which he was not.

I would like to think the the United States could never do what we did, but Vientnam happened and we cannot simply re-write history to confrom to our own patriotic beliefs. Why would it be any different now. Among other possible reasons reports of atrocities might surface faster now The internet? The presence of more international human rights observers in the thick of war zones? The past thirty years have seen massive changes in the average citizen's access to all kinds of data and discourse.

Steve, Actually, I posted the item to demonstrate that human rights organizations observing Iraq have weighed in on their concerns about the state of affairs between the Iraqi civilians and the military and that there is nothing in their report that resembles the Tiger Force atrocities. Or certainly won't be surprised when it happens. Spending that much blood and treasure on a marginal issue was foolish of the U. Let's not forget who the aggressors were, or what they did after the "people's" victory. The first step to preventing these kinds of problems in the future is to realize that everybody has dirty hands, then concentrate on the failings of one's own country and clean it up before wagging accusing fingers at others. The core ideas in Turse's article are right on the mark.

There is no question that large amounts of archival as well as other media material concerning the conduct of the war in Vietnam remains unchecked, unanalyzed, and generaly ingored. As a fellow historian of Vietnam albeit of a different period: colonial history I am equally concerned about the long-term tendency in American historical circles to skirt such unpleasantries. War crimes make troubling stories, and even more troubling complications for macro-historical explanations of national interest and national behavior.

But pause and consider a different set of facts that further colors grey an already murky subject. There are literally thousands of anecdotes about mass killings, lime-pits filled with bodies, NVA units using hammers on local teachers and others working for the 'Southern Regime'. Estimates for the number of people killed by Northern units after runs as high as 60, These are all thought to be extra-judicial killings in prison-camp environments. Nearly any story of war is certain to contain such horrors. In the case of Vietnam what historians must come to terms with is the unpleasant fact that almost every angle of approach contains a nearly constant problematic of unresolved or unacknowledged atrocities. There are very few 'good guys' in this story.

Kudos to Turse for working in the 'dirty' areas of our past! But you got to agree to shut yours. And that includes all of your various personalities. Grant, I agree with your point that too many attrocities in history, and well lets face it, right now, are ignored. I believe that Vietnam was a human rights crime, and we need to never forget what we did to that country, needlessly. This article is especially germane to the current debate over history, as many conservatives now argue that Vietnam was as Reagan called it a "noble war" and the only reason we lost was because of the liberals at home I seriously heard that this morning on talk radio. I also oppose this current war with Iraq. These things should be studied, and debated. However, we should also not be so selective in our condemnation.

The largest conlfict in world history since WWII is currently being fought right now. No, it is not Iraq, but in the Congo, where millions have been killed. Today, an ethnic minority faces brutal occupation by a religious majority who rutinely murders innocent women and children in an attempt to convert them. No, I am not talking about Israel, but Sudan. Over civilians have been killed in the last three weeks alone, tortured to death, with over 1.

The list goes on and on and on, and yet the international community is relatively silent non-profits and NGO's notwithstanding. I point these things out among many simply to remind everyone that there is a lot of evil and death in this world, and to focus solely on us and Israel does a diservice to the value of human life on this planet. Why not, because attacking America is just too much fun. A little context goes a long way. The crimes of America in Vietnam real and imagined have been studied in detail, the Genocide of our enemies is swept under the nearest rug.

I guess you are OK with that, I'm not. That's why I bring up what some would prefer to forget. Mass murder was the official, sanctioned policy of Hanoi. It would be like writing an article on the 45th Infantry Division's killing of several dozen SS guards at Dachau and not mentioning all those dead bodies in cattle cars. Selective indignation, raises questions, that's all. Slander, or when a footnote becomes a dissertation. Somewhere between 4, and 6, were rounded up. Most of those were clubbed or shot to death. Doctors, priests, and teachers were expecially targeted. Three thousnad bodies were eventually found in mass graves. The kind of omission that continuies.

With this in mind, NCVS data suggest that anti-Asian hate crime has remained an alarming problem across time, while UCR data imply the opposite or a less alarming persistent trend. At that point, researchers will be able to assess both the extent to which law enforcement data show a spike in anti-Asian hate crimes known to police and whether there were changes in the numbers of Asian victims of hate crimes reported or not reported to police. Although the two data sources may not be consistent in terms of the magnitude of any spike, together they should provide empirical evidence about whether the qualitative, anecdotal suggestions of a pandemic-related increase in anti-Asian hate crimes was true nationwide.

Together the two sources will show whether there were overall increases in the number of hate crimes against Asian Americans and whether the victims were comfortable seeking help from the police. Tweets have exposed instances of anti-Asian hate crime involving physical violence and harassment, mainly after bystander videos were posted and picked up by the broader media.

Twitter hashtags such as WashTheHate and HateIsAVirus trended on social media platforms as users responded to the incidents they viewed on their screens Elder, In another incident on March 10 th , a Korean American woman in midtown Manhattan was grabbed by the hair, shoved, and punched in the face by an assailant Miles, The victim suffered a dislocated jaw Miles, The assailant told police he feared the victims were Chinese and infecting others with the coronavirus Aziz, Many scientific studies have established a correlation between racialized victimization and poor mental health outcomes e. Specifically, McDevitt, Balboni, Garcia, and Gu reported that bias crimes impact victims differently than non-bias crimes in that victims of bias crimes are more fearful and experience intrusive thoughts following their victimization.

Additionally, the resolution called for federal law enforcement agencies to address pandemic-related hate crimes through data collection, documentation, and investigation Jeung et al. Finally, Menge called for states to set up multi-agency task forces to address COVIDrelated racial bias concerning safe retail access, fair employment, and quality mental health services in educational settings for Asian American students and others affected by the pandemic Jeung et al. Lamenting the lack of action, a group of 12 U.

On February 13, , in response to the recent uptick in verbal attacks and other racial incidents targeting Asian Americans in Los Angeles, CA, county officials held a news conference denouncing racist incidents against the Asian community related to fears around COVID Capatides, Officials urged the public not to buy into stereotypes and misinformation about Asians, specifically citing two separate bullying incidents in public schools that resulted in the hospitalization of school-aged victims City News Service, Despite a long history in North America and increasing numbers and political influence today, Asian American communities have continued to experience a recurring dynamic of othering.

Racism and xenophobia woven into the social fabric may generate harmful individual-level attitudes and actions against Asian Americans that other and exclude them from national belonging. Such nativist and xenophobic resentments intricately overlap with racism, wherein those in power fear and resist those who look different, speak dissimilar languages, and have unique cultural practices in comparison. As a result, the othering of Asian Americans has been historically repetitive in the form of bigoted exclusionary practices and violence, thus serving to entrench their foreigner and marginalized status and maintain the racial and nationalist hierarchy.

One could argue that the social and institutional entrenchment of racism and xenophobia has resulted in the repetitive re-emergence of anti-Asian stereotypes across time. Additionally, institutionalized processes and government policies elevated tax burdens, education and housing segregation, land ownership restrictions, and barriers to Asian immigration and citizenship [Zimmer, ] , further sustained the othering of Asian Americans. This othering process is amplified and replicated during pandemics when widespread fear of catching disease engenders prejudice against groups that are different from the majority population, positioning them as effective scapegoats Muzzatti, ; Taylor, Ostracizing Asian Americans in this way metaphorically builds a wall between those socially perceived as most important i.

As cognitive linguists Lakoff and Johnson have long established, metaphors are ubiquitous in forming our world view. Connecting group identities with explicitly medical language serves to categorize those group identities as other. Historically, this connection has influenced anti-immigrant rhetoric and policy in the United States. At any rate, any commitment to avoiding the public othering of Asian Americans was short-lived. Additionally, through the late spring of , political focus increasingly turned to placing blame for the COVID pandemic on the nation of China; a by-product of this focus is increased suspicion and fear in the American consciousness towards Asian Americans, creating the perfect climate to cultivate further hate crime Jeung et al.

Hate crimes during the COVID pandemic are an extreme manifestation of othering illustrating the replicative and cumulative effects of the historical embeddedness of racism and xenophobia. Although immigration status was not specifically explored in this paper, it is important to note that Asian immigrants without citizenship status may experience exacerbated devastating health effects of COVID hate crime as they have reduced access to resources that may help to address that harm due to fears of deportation upon reporting Dorn et al.

It is also essential that we take the lessons learned from racialized fear derived from historical events and apply that knowledge to feelings of fear and anxiety during the pandemic Jeung et al. Americans must confront incidents of discrimination head-on: in schools, workplaces, businesses, and public spaces, in addition to demanding a robust response from law enforcement and the federal and state governments when hate crimes occur Jeung et al. In summary, across time, socially entrenched racism and xenophobia toward Asian Americans have repetitively recurred through individual-level prejudiced attitudes and actions.

Moreover, these attitudes and actions have been reinforced by institutional-level support during times of crisis or great change, including the coronavirus pandemic. Such othering has led to a climate in which Asian Americans are more vulnerable to racialized forms of aggression, including hate crimes. Gover received her Ph. Gover remains active in her profession by serving on editorial boards for several journals in her field. She examines the neighborhood social and structural factors that influence IPH, as well as how the criminal justice system and community resources operate to address it and the abuse that precipitates it.

Her published works can be found in multiple peer-reviewed journals and edited volumes. Her research focuses on victimization, victim services, sexual violence, hate crime, financial fraud and white-collar crime, police-community relations, and survey methodology. Prior to joining RTI in , Dr. Langton served as Victimization Unit Chief for the Bureau of Justice Statistics where she directed numerous large-scale national projects, including the National Crime Victimization Survey. For both collections, the most recent year of data available is Both data collections operate on a calendar year January—December.

Once the collections close on December 31st, the BJS and FBI spend several months cleaning and processing the annual files and typically release the data several months later in the summer or fall. In other words, data are expected to be released in the late summer or early fall of The FBI does not produce standard errors so it is difficult to determine whether an apparent change in a number is actually within the margin of error.

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations. Angela R. Gover, Email: ude. Shannon B. Harper, Email: ude. Lynn Langton, Email: gro. National Center for Biotechnology Information , U. Am J Crim Justice. Gover , 1 Shannon B. Harper , 2 and Lynn Langton 3. Author information Article notes Copyright and License information Disclaimer.

Corresponding author. Received May 10; Accepted Jun This article is made available via the PMC Open Access Subset for unrestricted research re-use and secondary analysis in any form or by any means with acknowledgement of the original source. This article has been cited by other articles in PMC. Abstract Coronavirus Disease COVID is believed to have emerged in Wuhan, China in late December and began rapidly spreading around the globe throughout the spring months of Othering Theory Othering is a concept found in the literature in reference to a dominant group marginalizing a non-dominant group in some way.

Japanese Concentration Camps In what remains one of the most shameful violations of constitutional rights in U. UCR The FBI annually collects summary crime data from thousands of city, county, college and university, state, tribal, and federal law enforcement agencies nationwide through the UCR Program. Psychological Effects of Hate Crimes Many scientific studies have established a correlation between racialized victimization and poor mental health outcomes e.

State Response On February 13, , in response to the recent uptick in verbal attacks and other racial incidents targeting Asian Americans in Los Angeles, CA, county officials held a news conference denouncing racist incidents against the Asian community related to fears around COVID Capatides, Biographies Angela R. Gover , Ph. Harper , Ph. Lynn Langton , Ph.

Contributor Information Angela R. References Alba, R. The second generation from the last great wave of immigration: Setting the record straight. Migration Policy Institute. Addington, L. Bureau of Justice Statistics. Ahrens D. Drug panics in the twenty-first century: Ecstasy, prescription drugs, and the reframing of the war on drugs. Albany Government Law Review. The yellow Pacific: Transnational identities, diasporic racialization, and myth s of the Asian century. UC Davis Law Review. Anti-Asian racism must be stopped before it is normalised. Al Jazeera. Accessed 23 Apr Barde R. Plague in San Francisco: An essay review. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences. Chinatown is not part of China': Trump's tweet at Pelosi is met with criticism online.

USA Today. Boyer, D. Trump spars with reporter over accusation that staffer called coronavirus 'Kung flu. Accessed 1 Apr Bureau of Justice Statistics — Inter-university Consortium for Political and Social Research [distributor], San Francisco Chronicle. Accessed 5 Apr Campbell, A. Federal agencies are doing little about the rise in anti-Asian hate crime. Accessed 30 Apr Capatides, C. Bullies attack Asian American teen at school, accusing him of having coronavirus. CBS News.

Accessed 18 Mar Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Coronavirus disease Covid situation summary. Chapman, M. Accessed 10 Apr Chen T. Hate violence as border patrol: An Asian American theory of hate violence. Asian Law Journal. The civil rights revolution comes to immigration law: A new look at the immigration and nationality act of National Carolina Law Review. The Washington Post. Accessed 4 Apr The myth of the model minority: Asian Americans facing racism. New York: Paradigm Publishers; Los Angeles Daily News. Accessed 14 Mar Cohn SK. Historical Research.

Racial trauma recovery: A race-informed therapeutic approach to racial wounds.

Furthermore, many refer to the CFR as an international criminal gang due to their support for violent Southern Moral Code In William Faulkners The Unvanquished change, among other questionable behavior. I Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes talking about the individual making a Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes that will benefit themselves and in turn everyone else. Chicago Tribune, July 28, Tax Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes foundations and mega corporations are filling the gap. As many as two dozen have been Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes Betrayal Quotes About Betrayal in a single Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes and charged with attempted rape of a child, as Jace Hambrick was, even though no actual children were involved. Carlos Rodriguez of the Washington Self Awareness In Psychology Patrol, had extensive documentation of the text messages, he failed to record phone calls with Chapman and a key Analysis: Should Child Soldiers Be Prosecuted For Their Crimes of Case Study: Comcast testimony was contradicted by a fellow trooper.

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