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Compare And Contrast Ancient Greek And Roman Democracy



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History 600A Unit 3 Live Class Compare and Contrast Ancient Greece and Rome

A compare and contrast technique is an important tool and helps organize thoughts and ideas to gain meaningful insights. It allows you to point out both differences and similarities between two or more topics. These differences are based on certain criteria and a conclusion on which of the discussed items is superior. Below are some compare and contrast outline examples. The topics are provided along with a proposed thesis and essay or speech structure suggestions.

A compare and contrast essay is a fantastic way to lay out different product options. These are written in a logical way and based on specific standards. This helps readers make an informed decision on what to buy. In an essay like this, the writer could introduce the topic by appealing to the animal lover in people. The writer could then highlight the dangers and potentially life-shortening effects of feeding a pet the wrong food. This should be done by using real-life studies and examples. The topic for a thesis like this could be something like the following. Structurally, the article would then list five different types of dog food. Then, in the body of each product, compare and contrast their price, nutritional value and appropriateness by breed size.

Also, the writer should be including other pertinent information. This can be done in the form of client reviews and variety of flavors available. Also included in this section could be anything else the writers deems to be relevant per product. In the conclusion, it is important to recap all the important points. Then, to choose a favorite or recommend a buy. In some cases, it is sufficient to recommend buying different products based on different values. The writer can state that for an owner that places great value on food being organic and free of GMOs, option A is the best buy. While for a price sensitive buyer option C is the best buy. Using values and campaign promises for both a real life and fictional political race.

In this example, the writer can introduce the topic by vaguely introducing the story. It would be fair to assume the reader would be familiar with the series. The writer can then introduce the characters that are either in the running — or should be in the running — for power in Westeros. The topic for this thesis could be something like the following. However, only one will rule.

This essay will evaluate each of these strong women. This comparison will be done through leadership skills, military prowess and political competence. This essay will determine which would be the most deserving ruler of the Seven Kingdoms. The body of an essay like this one could be split into three paragraphs, one for each female contender: Daenerys, Sanza and Cercei. To conclude, the writer should clearly designate a winner of who should rule between the three characters. They could also further entice the reader by mentioning other contenders for power in the series.

The model for this type of essay can also be used to analyze candidates for a real life political race or any competition. A compare and contrast article can also be used to point out the differences between two almost identical corporations and distinguish where people should be shopping at and why. In this example, the entity is grocery stores. Continuing the affair beyond that point could result in damage to the master's repute.

Some men, however, insisted on ignoring this convention. Exoleti appear with certain frequency in Latin texts, both fictional and historical, unlike in Greek literature, suggesting perhaps that adult male-male sex was more common among the Romans than among the Greeks. Pathicus was a "blunt" word for a male who was penetrated sexually. It derived from the unattested Greek adjective pathikos , from the verb paskhein , equivalent to the Latin deponent patior, pati, passus , "undergo, submit to, endure, suffer".

Pathicus and cinaedus are often not distinguished in usage by Latin writers, but cinaedus may be a more general term for a male not in conformity with the role of vir , a "real man", while pathicus specifically denotes an adult male who takes the sexually receptive role. His sexuality was not defined by the gender of the person using him as a receptacle for sex, but rather his desire to be so used. Because in Roman culture a man who penetrates another adult male almost always expresses contempt or revenge, the pathicus might be seen as more akin to the sexual masochist in his experience of pleasure. He might be penetrated orally or anally by a man or by a woman with a dildo , but showed no desire for penetrating nor having his own penis stimulated.

He might also be dominated by a woman who compels him to perform cunnilingus. In the discourse of sexuality, puer "boy" was a role as well as an age group. The puer delicatus was an "exquisite" or "dainty" child-slave chosen by his master for his beauty as a " boy toy ", [] also referred to as deliciae "sweets" or "delights". Funeral inscriptions found in the ruins of the imperial household under Augustus and Tiberius also indicate that deliciae were kept in the palace and that some slaves, male and female, worked as beauticians for these boys. The boy was sometimes castrated in an effort to preserve his youthful qualities; the emperor Nero had a puer delicatus named Sporus , whom he castrated and married.

Pueri delicati might be idealized in poetry and the relationship between him and his master may be painted in strongly romantic colors. In the Silvae , Statius composed two epitaphs 2. These poems seem to demonstrate that such relationships could have a deep emotional dimension, [] and it is known from inscriptions in Roman ruins that men could be buried with their delicati , which is evidence of deep emotional attachment on the part of the master as well as of an erotic relationship between the pair in life. Both Martial and Statius in a number of poems celebrate the freedman Earinus, a eunuch, and his devotion to his lover, the emperor Domitian.

In the erotic elegies of Tibullus , the delicatus Marathus wears lavish and expensive clothing. Pullus was a term for a young animal, and particularly a chick. It was an affectionate word [] traditionally used for a boy puer [] who was loved by someone "in an obscene sense". The lexicographer Festus provides a definition and illustrates with a comic anecdote. Quintus Fabius Maximus Eburnus , a consul in BC and later a censor known for his moral severity, earned his cognomen meaning " Ivory " the modern equivalent might be " Porcelain " because of his fair good looks candor. Eburnus was said to have been struck by lightning on his buttocks, perhaps a reference to a birthmark.

Although the sexual inviolability of underage male citizens is usually emphasized, this anecdote is among the evidence that even the most well-born youths might go through a phase in which they could be viewed as "sex objects". The 4th-century Gallo-Roman poet Ausonius records the word pullipremo , "chick-squeezer", which he says was used by the early satirist Lucilius. Pusio is etymologically related to puer, and means "boy, lad". It often had a distinctly sexual or sexually demeaning connotation. Scultimidonus "asshole-bestower" [] was rare and "florid" slang [82] that appears in a fragment from the early Roman satirist Lucilius. The abstract noun impudicitia adjective impudicus was the negation of pudicitia , "sexual morality, chastity".

As a characteristic of males, it often implies the willingness to be penetrated. Impudicitia might be associated with behaviors in young men who retained a degree of boyish attractiveness but were old enough to be expected to behave according to masculine norms. Julius Caesar was accused of bringing the notoriety of infamia upon himself, both when he was about 19, for taking the passive role in an affair with King Nicomedes of Bithynia , and later for many adulterous affairs with women.

Latin had such a wealth of words for men outside the masculine norm that some scholars [] argue for the existence of a homosexual subculture at Rome; that is, although the noun "homosexual" has no straightforward equivalent in Latin, literary sources reveal a pattern of behaviors among a minority of free men that indicate same-sex preference or orientation. Plautus mentions a street known for male prostitutes. Juvenal states that such men scratched their heads with a finger to identify themselves. Apuleius indicates that cinaedi might form social alliances for mutual enjoyment, such as hosting dinner parties.

In his novel The Golden Ass , he describes one group who jointly purchased and shared a concubinus. On one occasion, they invited a "well-endowed" young hick rusticanus iuvenis to their party, and took turns performing oral sex on him. Other scholars, primarily those who argue from the perspective of " cultural constructionism ", maintain that there is not an identifiable social group of males who would have self-identified as "homosexual" as a community.

Although in general the Romans regarded marriage as a male—female union for the purpose of producing children, a few scholars believe that in the early Imperial period some male couples were celebrating traditional marriage rites in the presence of friends. Male—male weddings are reported by sources that mock them; the feelings of the participants are not recorded. Both Martial and Juvenal refer to marriage between males as something that occurs not infrequently, although they disapprove of it. Various ancient sources state that the emperor Nero celebrated two public weddings with males, once taking the role of the bride with a freedman Pythagoras , and once the groom with Sporus ; there may have been a third in which he was the bride.

Other mature men at his court had husbands, or said they had husbands in imitation of the emperor. The earliest reference in Latin literature to a marriage between males occurs in the Philippics of Cicero , who insulted Mark Antony for being promiscuous in his youth until Curio "established you in a fixed and stable marriage matrimonium , as if he had given you a stola ", the traditional garment of a married woman. Roman law addressed the rape of a male citizen as early as the 2nd century BC, [] when it was ruled that even a man who was "disreputable and questionable" famosus, related to infamis , and suspiciosus had the same right as other free men not to have his body subjected to forced sex.

The slave's owner, however, could prosecute the rapist for property damage. Fears of mass rape following a military defeat extended equally to male and female potential victims. The threat of one man to subject another to anal or oral rape irrumatio is a theme of invective poetry, most notably in Catullus 's notorious Carmen 16 , [] and was a form of masculine braggadocio. In a collection of twelve anecdotes dealing with assaults on chastity, the historian Valerius Maximus features male victims in equal number to female. The Roman soldier, like any free and respectable Roman male of status, was expected to show self-discipline in matters of sex.

Augustus reigned 27 BC — 14 AD even prohibited soldiers from marrying, a ban that remained in force for the Imperial army for nearly two centuries. Sex among fellow soldiers, however, violated the Roman decorum against intercourse with another freeborn male. A soldier maintained his masculinity by not allowing his body to be used for sexual purposes. In warfare, rape symbolized defeat, a motive for the soldier not to make his body sexually vulnerable in general.

Polybius 2nd century BC reports that the punishment for a soldier who willingly submitted to penetration was the fustuarium , clubbing to death. Roman historians record cautionary tales of officers who abuse their authority to coerce sex from their soldiers, and then suffer dire consequences. A good-looking young recruit named Trebonius [] had been sexually harassed over a period of time by his superior officer, who happened to be Marius's nephew, Gaius Luscius. One night, after having fended off unwanted advances on numerous occasions, Trebonius was summoned to Luscius's tent. Unable to disobey the command of his superior, he found himself the object of a sexual assault and drew his sword, killing Luscius. A conviction for killing an officer typically resulted in execution.

When brought to trial, he was able to produce witnesses to show that he had repeatedly had to fend off Luscius, and "had never prostituted his body to anyone, despite offers of expensive gifts". Marius not only acquitted Trebonius in the killing of his kinsman, but gave him a crown for bravery. In addition to repeatedly described anal intercourse, oral sex was common. A graffito from Pompeii is unambiguous: "Secundus is a fellator of rare ability" Secundus felator rarus. Petronius describes a man with a large penis in a public bathroom. The Gallo-Roman poet Ausonius 4th century AD makes a joke about a male threesome that depends on imagining the configurations of group sex:.

In other words, a 'train' is being alluded to: the first man penetrates the second, who in turn penetrates the third. The first two are "sinning", while the last two are being "sinned against". References to sex between women are infrequent in the Roman literature of the Republic and early Principate. Ovid finds it "a desire known to no one, freakish, novel I wish I could hold to my neck and embrace the little arms, and bear kisses on the tender lips.

Go on, doll, and trust your joys to the winds; believe me, light is the nature of men. Other readings, unrelated to female homosexual desire, are also possible. According to Roman studies scholar Craig Williams, the verses can also be read as, "a poetic soliloquy in which a woman ponders her own painful experiences with men and addresses herself in Catullan manner; the opening wish for an embrace and kisses express a backward-looking yearning for her man. Greek words for a woman who prefers sex with another woman include hetairistria compare hetaira , "courtesan" or "companion" , tribas plural tribades , and Lesbia ; Latin words include the loanword tribas , fricatrix "she who rubs" , and virago.

Instead, they consort with women, just like men. Since Romans thought a sex act required an active or dominant partner who was " phallic ", male writers imagined that in female—female sex one of the women would use a dildo or have an exceptionally large clitoris for penetration, and that she would be the one experiencing pleasure. Martial describes women acting sexually actively with other women as having outsized sexual appetites and performing penetrative sex on both women and boys. Cross-dressing appears in Roman literature and art in various ways to mark the uncertainties and ambiguities of gender:.

A section of the Digest by Ulpian categorizes Roman clothing on the basis of who may appropriately wear it: vestimenta virilia , "men's clothing", is defined as the attire of the paterfamilias , "head of household"; puerilia is clothing that serves no purpose other than to mark its wearer as a "child" or minor; muliebria are the garments that characterize a materfamilias ; communia , those that are "common", that is, worn by either sex; and familiarica , clothing for the familia , the subordinates in a household, including the staff and slaves.

A man who wore women's clothes, Ulpian notes, would risk making himself the object of scorn. The wearing of the toga may signal that prostitutes were outside the normal social and legal category of "woman". A fragment from the playwright Accius —86 BC seems to refer to a father who secretly wore "virgin's finery". Gender ambiguity was a characteristic of the priests of the goddess Cybele known as Galli, whose ritual attire included items of women's clothing. They are sometimes considered a transgender or transsexual priesthood, since they were required to be castrated in imitation of Attis.

The complexities of gender identity in the religion of Cybele and the Attis myth are explored by Catullus in one of his longest poems, Carmen Macrobius describes a masculine form of "Venus" Aphrodite who received cult on Cyprus ; she had a beard and male genitals, but wore women's clothing. The deity's worshippers cross-dressed, men wearing women's clothes, and women men's. In several surviving examples of Greek and Roman sculpture, the love goddess pulls up her garments to reveal her male genitalia, a gesture that traditionally held apotropaic or magical power.

Pliny notes that "there are even those who are born of both sexes, whom we call hermaphrodites, at one time androgyni " andr- , "man", and gyn- , "woman", from the Greek. Attitudes toward same-sex behavior changed as Christianity became more prominent in the Empire. The modern perception of Roman sexual decadence can be traced to early Christian polemic. A series of laws regulating male—male sex were promulgated during the social crisis of the 3rd century , from the statutory rape of minors to marriage between males. By the end of the 4th century, anally passive men under the Christian Empire were punished by burning.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Sexuality in ancient Rome. See also: Erotic art in Pompeii and Herculaneum. Main article: Warren Cup. See also: History of lesbianism and Tribadism. Main article: Intersex in history. LGBT portal. Graffiti and the Literary Landscape in Roman Pompeii. Oxford University Press. ISBN Despite the best efforts of scholars, we have essentially no direct evidence of female homoerotic love in Rome: the best we can do is a collection of hostile literary and technical treatments ranging from Phaedrus to Juvenal to the medical writers and Church fathers, all of which condemn sex between women as low-class, immoral, barbarous, and disgusting.

Faraone Ancient Greek Love Magic. Harvard University Press. See the statement preserved by Aulus Gellius 9. The lower classes humiliores were subject to harsher penalties than the elite honestiores. See also Sexuality in ancient Rome Epicurean sexuality. University of Chicago. Hallett; Marilyn Skinner, eds. Roman Sexualities. Princeton University Press. In Bed with the Romans. Amberley Publishing. A Companion to the Roman Empire. Sex or Symbol? Erotic Images of Greece and Rome. British Museum. Butrica

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